Differential exposure, duration, and sensitivity of Unionoidean bivalve life stages to environmental contaminants.
Tom Augspurger F. James Dwyer Ning Wang Christopher G. Ingersoll M. Christopher Barnhart W. Gregory Cope R. B. Bringolf D. B. Buchwalter Teresa J. Newton Richard J. Neves E. Hammer
451 - 462
Freshwater mussels (superfamily Unionoidea) are in serious global decline and in urgent need of protection and conservation. The declines have been attributed to a wide array of human activities resulting in pollution and water-quality degradation, and habitat destruction and alteration. Linkages among poor water quality, pollutant sources, and mussel decline in rivers and streams have been associated with results of laboratory-based tests of specific pollutants. However, uncertainties remain about the relationship of laboratory data to actual contaminant exposure routes for various mussel species, life stages, and in the habitats occupied during these exposures.
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