Photo by Francisco Osuna, Elan Organic Coffees.
In this photo, mostly unshaded coffee grows on the hillside.
It is lush and green, yet like a Christmas tree farm, offers just one layer of vegetation.
Few birds forage in the coffee shrubs themselves (coffee cherries are not eaten) and the trees which would attract birds are spaced far apart.
When tree cover is reduced, farms require more chemical fertilizers and pesticides, and become more susceptible to erosion, drought, and soil acidification.