Alligator Gar
(Atractosteus spatula)

Alligator Gar and Related Subjects Bibliography

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Abell, R. 2002. Conservation biology for the biodiversity crisis: a freshwater follow-up. Conservation Biology 16:1435-1437.

 

Adams, S. R., M. B. Flinn, B. M. Burr, M. R. Whiles, and J. E. Garvey. 2006. Ecology of larval blue sucker (Cycleptus elongatus) in the Mississippi River. Ecology of Freshwater Fish 15:291-300.

 

Aguilera, C., R. Mendoza, G. Rodriguez, and G. Marquez. 2002. Morphological description of alligator gar and tropical gar larvae, with an emphasis on growth indicators. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 131:899-909.

 

Allan, J. D., and A. S. Flecker. 1993. Biodiversity conservation in running waters. BioScience 43:32-43.

 

Anderson, A. A., C. H., K.O. Winemiller, and R. J. Edwards. 1995. Texas freshwater fish assemblages following three decades of environmental change. Southwest. Nat. 40(3):314-321.

 

Baker, J. A., K. J. Killgore, R. L. Kasul. 1991. Aquatic habitats and fish communities in the lower Mississippi River. Aquatic Sciences 3:313-356.

 

Baker, N.T. and F.W. Jeffrey. 1997. U.S. Fish Community and Habitat Data at Selected Sites in the White River Basin, Indiana, 1993-95. USGS Open-file Report 96-953A.

 

Bayley, P. B. 1995. Understanding large river-floodplain ecosystems. BioScience 45:153-158.

 

Bonham, K. 1941. Food of gars in Texas. Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc. 70(1):356-362.

 

Boudreux, P.J., A.M. Ferrara, and Q.C. Fontenot. 2007. Acute Toxicity of Ammonia to Spotted Gar, Lepisosteus oculatus, Alligator Gar, Atractosteus spatula, and Paddlefish, Polyodon spathula. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society Volume 38 Issue 2, Pages 322 - 325.

 

Boudreux, P.J., A.M. Ferrara, and Q.C. Fontenot. 2007. Chloride inhibition of nitrate uptake for non-teleost Actinopterygiian fishes. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - Part A. 147: 420-423.

 

Brinkman, E. L. 2008. Contributions to the Life History of Alligator Gar, Atractosteus spatula, (Lacepede), in Oklahoma. Master's Thesis, Oklahoma State University Graduate College. Stillwater, Oklahoma.

 

Bunn, S. E., and A. H. Arthington. 2002. Basic principles and ecological consequences of altered flow regimes for aquatic biodiversity. Environmental Management 30:492-507.

Cook, F. A. 1959. Freshwater fishes in Mississippi. Mississippi Game and Fish Commission. Jackson, Mississippi 239p.

 

Burr, B. M., and M. L. Warren, Jr. 1986. A distributional atlas of Kentucky fishes. Kentucky Nature Preserves Commission, Scientific and Technical Series 4. 398 pp.

 

Burton, C. 1970. Alligator gar - fish terror or fishery tool. Arkansas Game and Fish. 3(1):5-7.

 

Cook, F.A. 1959. Freshwater fishes in Mississippi. Mississippi Game and Fish Commission, Jackson. 239 pp.

 

Darnell, R.M. 1958. Food habits of fishes and larger invertebrates of Lake Ponchartrain, Louisiana, an estuarine community. Univ. Texas, Publ. Inst. Mar. Sci. 5:353-406.

 

Darnell, R.M. 1961. Trophic spectrum of an estuarine community, based on studies of Lake Ponchartrain. Ecology 42(3):553-568.

 

Dean, B. 1895. The early development of gar-pike and sturgeon. Journal of Morphology 11:1-55.

 

DiBenedetto, K. 2009. Life History Characteristics of Alligator Gar, Atracosteus spatula, in the Bayou Dularge Area of Southcentral Louisiana. (MS) Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana.

 

Douglas, N.H. 1974. The Fishes of Louisiana. Claitor’s Publishing Division, Baton Rouge, LA. 443 pp.

 

Dynesius, M., and C. Nilsson. 1994. Fragmentation and flow regulation of river systems in the northern third of the world. Science 266:753-762.

 

Echelle, A. A. 1967. The food of young-of-year gars, Lepisosteus, in Lake Texoma with notes on spawning and development. (MS). ry2dayNorman, Oklahoma, The University of Oklahoma.

 

Echelle, A. A., and C. D. Riggs. 1972. Aspects of the early life history of gars (Lepisosteus) in Lake Texoma. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 101:106-112.

 

Edwards, R.J., and S. Contreras-Balderas. 1991. Historical changes in the ichthyofauna of the lower Rio Grande (Rio Bravo del Norte), Texas and Mexico. The Southwestern Naturalist 36(2):201-212.

 

Etnier, D. A., and W. C. Starnes. 1993. The fishes of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press, Knoxville. xiv, 681p

 

Evermann, B.W. 1899. Report on investigations by the U.S. Fish Commission in Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas, in 1897. Rept. U.S. Fish Comm. 24:287-310.

 

Ferrara, A. M. 2001. Life-history strategy of Lepisosteidae: Implications for the conservation and management of alligator gar. A dissertation submitted to the Graduate Faculty of Auburn University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy.

 

Ferrara, A. M., and E. R. Irwin. 2001. A standardized procedure for internal sex identification in Lepisosteidae. North American Journal of Fisheries Manangement 21:956-961.

 

Finger, T. R., and E. M. Stewart. 1987. Response of fishes to flooding regime in lowland hardwood wetlands. Community and Evolutionary Ecology of North American Stream Fishes 86-92.

 

Fuller, P. L., L. G. Nico, and J. D. Williams. 1999. Nonindigenous fishes introduced into inland waters of the United States. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 27. x + 613 pp.

 

Galat, D. L., L. H. Fredrickson, D. D. Humburg, K. J. Bataille, J. R. Bodie, J. Dohrenwend, G. T. Gelwicks, J. E. Havel, D. L. Helmers, J. B. Hooker, J. R. Jones, M.F. Knowlton, J. Kubisiak, J. Mazourek, A. C. McColpin, R. B. Renken, and R. D. Semlitsch. 1998. Flooding to restore connectivity of regulated, large-river wetlands. BioScience 48:721-733.

 

Garcia De Leon, F. J., L. Gonzalez-Garcia, J. M. Herrera-Castillo, K. O. Winemiller, and A. Banda-Valdes. 2001. Ecology of the alligator gar, Atractosteus spatula, in the Vicente Guerrero Reservoir, Tamaulipas, Mexico. The Southwestern Naturalist 46:151-157.

 

Gelwick, F.P., and M.N. Morgan. 2000. Microhabitat use and community structure of fishes downstream of the proposed George Parkhouse I and Marvin Nichols I reservoir sites on the Sulphur River, Texas. Report to the Texas Water Development Board. 124 pp.

 

Gelwick, F.P., S. Akin, A. Arrington, and K.O. Winemiller. 2001. Fish assemblage structure in relation to environmental variation in a Texas gulf coastal wetland. Estuaries 24(2):285-296.

 

Gilbert, C.R. 1992. Rare and Endangered Biota of Florida, Volume II. Fishes. University Press of Florida, Gainesville.

 

Goldstein, R.M., and T.P. Simon. 1999. Toward a united definition of guild structure for feeding ecology of North American freshwater fishes. pp. 123-202 in T.P. Simon, editor. Assessing the sustainability and biological integrity of water resources using fish communities. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida. 671 pp.

 

Goodyear, C. P. 1967. Feeding habits of three species of gars, Lepisosteus, along the Mississippi Gulf Coast. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 96:296-300.

Guillory, V. 1979. Utilization of an inundated floodplain by Mississippi River fishes. Florida Scientist 42:222-228.

 

Harding, J. S., E. F. Benfield, P. V. Bolstad, G. S. Helfman, and E. B. D. Jones. 1998. Stream biodiversity: The ghost of land use past. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA 95:14843–14847.

 

Hastings, R.W.,D.A. Turner, and R.G. Thomas. 1987. Fish Fauna of Lake Maurepas, an Oligohaline Part of the Lake Pontchartrain Estuary. Northeast Gulf Science NGSCDE Vol. 9, No. 2, p 89-98, December 1987. 1 fig, 6 tab, 15 ref. NOAA Grant NA-83-AAA-D-CZ025.

 

Hay, O.P. 1883. On a collection of fishes from lower Mississippi valley. Proc. Bull. U.S. Fish Comm. 2:57-75.

 

Herkert, J. R., editor. 1992. Endangered and threatened species of Illinois: status and distribution. Vol. 2: Animals. Illinois Endangered Species Protection Board. iv + 142 pp.

 

Herrington, S.J., K.N. Hettiger, E.J. Heist, and D. B. Keeney. 2008. Hybridization between Longnose and Alligator Gars in Captivity, with Comments on Possible Gar Hybridization in Nature. Volume 137, Issue 1, pp. 158–164.

 

Hildebrand S.F. and I.L. Towers. 1928. Annotated list of fishes collected in the vicinity of Greenwood, Mississippi, with descriptions of three new species. Bull. of the Bureau of Fisheries 43(2):105-136.

 

Hoese, H. D., and R. H. Moore. 1998. Fishes of the Gulf of Mexico: Texas, Louisiana, and adjacent waters. Texas A&M University Press, College Station.

 

Hoffman, G.L. 1967. Parasites of North American Freshwater Fishes. University of California Press, Berkeley. 486 pp.

 

Hubbs, C., R.J. Edwards, and G.P. Garrett. 1991. An annotated checklist of the freshwater fishes of Texas, with keys to identification of species. The Texas Journal of Science, Supplement 43(4):1-56.

 

Hubbs, C., R.J. Edwards, and G.P. Garrett. 2008. An annotated checklist of the freshwater fishes of Texas, with keys to identification of species. Texas Journal of Science, Supplement, 2nd edition 43(4):1-87

 

Humphries, P., A. J. King, and J. D. Koehn. 1999. Fish, flows and flood plains: links between freshwater fishes and their environment in the Murray-Darling River system, Australia. Environmental Biology of Fishes 56:129-151.

 

IGFA (International Game Fish Association). 1999. World Record Game Fishes. Pampano Beach, Florida. 352 pp.

 

Inebnit, T. E., III. 2009. Aspects of the Reproductive and Juvenile Ecology of Alligator Gar in the Fourche LaFave River, Arkansas. (MS) University of Central Arkansas, Conway, Arkansas.

 

Jelks, H.L., S.J. Walsh, N.M. Burkhead, S. Contreras-Balderas, E. Diaz-Pardo, D.A. Hendrickson, J. Lyons, N.E. Mandrak, F. McCormick, J.S. Nelson, S.P. Platania, B.A. Porter, C.B. Renaud, J.J. Schmitter-Soto, E.B. Taylor, and M.L. Warren, Jr. 2008. Conservation status of imperiled North American freshwater and diadromous fishes. Fisheries 33(8):372-407.

 

Johnson, B. L., and D. B. Noltie. 1996. Migratory dynamics of stream-spawning longnose gar (Lepisosteus osseus). Ecology of Freshwater Fish 5:97-107.

 

Johnson, B. L., W. B. Richardson, and T. J. Naimo. 1995. Past, present, and future concepts in large river ecology. BioScience 45:134-141.

 

Junk, W.J., P.B. Bayley, and R.E. Sparks. 1989. The flood pulse concept in river-floodplain systems. Pages 110-127 in D. P. Dodge editor. Proceedings of the International Large River Symposium. Canadian Special Publication of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences.

 

Kammerer, C.F., L. Grande, and M.W. Westneat. 2004. Comparative and developmental functional morphology of the jaws of living and fossil gars (Actinopterygii: Lepisosteidae). Journal of Morphology. Volume 267 Issue 9, Pages 1017 - 1031.

 

Killgore, K. J., and J. A. Baker. 1996. Patterns of larval fish abundance in a bottomland hardwood wetland. Wetlands 16:288-295.

 

King, A. J., P. Humphries, and P.S. Lake. 2003. Fish recruitment on floodplains: the roles of patterns of flooding and life history characteristics. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 60:773-786.

 

Knapp, F.T. 1953. Fishes Found in the Freshwater of Texas. Ragland Studio and Litho Printing Co., Brunswick, Georgia. 166 pp.

 

Lacepede, B.G.E. 1803. Histoire Naturelle des Poissons. Hist. Nat. Poiss. Pls. 1-21.

 

Lambou, V.W. 1961. Utilization of macrocrustaceans for food by freshwater fishes in Louisiana and its effect on the determination of predator-prey relations. Progressive Fish-Culturist 23(1):18-25.

 

Landolt, John C. (1970). Certain aspects of gill respiration of gars (Pisces:Lepisosteidae). (PhD). Norman, Oklahoma, The University of Oklahoma.

 

Layher, W.G., A.O. Layher, B.S. Crabb and M. Spurlock. 2008. Literature Survey, Status in States of Historic Occurrence, and Field Investigations into the Life History of Alligator Gar in the Ouachita River, Arkansas. Report to Arkansas Game & Fish Commission. Layher BioLogics RTEC, Inc. Pine Bluff, Arkansas.

 

Lee, D.S. and E.O. Wiley. 1980. Atractosteus spatuala (Lacepède), Alligator gar. pp. 47 in D. S. Lee, et al. Atlas of North American Freshwater Fishes. N. C. State Mus. Nat. Hist., Raleigh, 854 pp.

 

Linam, G.W., and L.J. Kleinsasser. 1987. Fisheries use attainability study for Cow Bayou (Segment 0511). River Studies Report No. 5. Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, Austin. 12 pp.

 

Lydeard, C., and R. L. Mayden. 1995. A diverse and endangered aquatic ecosystem of the southeast United States. Conservation Biology 9:800-805.

 

May, E. B., and A. A. Echelle. 1968. Young of year alligator gar in Lake Texoma, Oklahoma. Copeia 1968:629-630.

 

May, E. B. (1970). The food habits of gars (Lepisosteus) in Lake Texoma, Oklahoma and Texas, with notes on distribution and parasitism. (MS). Norman, Oklahoma, The University of Oklahoma.

 

Mayberry, L.F., A.G. Canaris, and J.R. Bristol. 2000. Bibliography of parasites and vertebrate host in Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas (1893-1984). University of Nebraska Harold W. Manter Laboratory of Parasitology Web Server pp. 1-100.

 

McCarley, H., and L.G. Hill. 1979. Reproduction of Lepisosteus spatula (Lepisostedae) in Lake Texoma. The Southwestern Naturalist 24(4):694-695.

 

Mendoza, R., C. Aguilera, A.M. Ferrara. 2008. Gar biology and culture: status and prospects. Aquaculture Research. Volume 39 Issue 7, Pages 748 - 763.

 

Mendoza, R., C. Aguilera, L. Carreon, J. Montemayor, and M. Gonzalez. 2007. Weaning of alligator gar (Atractosteus spatula) larvae to artificial diets. Aquaculture Nutrition. Volume 14 Issue 3, Pages 223 - 231.

 

Mendoza, R., C. Aguilera, G. Robriguez, and R. Castro. 2002. Morphophysiological studies on alligator gar (Atractosteus spatula) larval development as a basis for their culture and repopulation of their natural habitats. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 12: 133-142.

 

Mettee, M. F., P. E. O'Neil, and J. M. Pierson. 1996. Fishes of Alabama and the Mobile Basin. Oxmoor House, Birmingham, Alabama. 820 pp.

 

Miller, J., and H.W. Robison. 2004. Fishes of Oklahoma. Alligator Gar. University of Oklahoma Press, pp. 52-53.

 

Mitchell, G.T. (1965). The use of fin rays in age and growth studies of gar from Lake Texoma Oklahoma. (MS). Norman, Oklahoma, The University of Oklahoma.

 

Moore, G. A., M. B. Trautman, and M. R. Curd. 1973. A description of postlarval gar (Lepisosteus spatula, Lacepede, Lepisosteidae), with a list of associated species from the Red River, Choctaw County, Oklahoma. The Southwestern Naturalist 18:343-344.

 

Morgan, M.N. 2002. Habitat associations of associations of fish assemblages in the Sulphur River, Texas. Thesis, Texas A&M University, College Station. 58 pp.

 

Nelson, J. S. 1984. Fishes of the world. Second edition. John Wiley & Sons, New York. xv + 523 pp.

 

Nelson, J. S. 1994. Fishes of the world. Third edition. John Wiley and Sons, New York. 600 pp.

 

Nelson, J. S., E. J. Crossman, H. Espinosa-Perez, L. T. Findley, C. R. Gilbert, R. N. Lea, and J. D. Williams. 2004. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States, Canada, and Mexico. American Fisheries Society, Special Publication 29, Bethesda, Maryland. 386 pp.

 

Nilsson, C., and K. Berggren. 2000. Alterations of riparian ecosystems caused by river regulation. BioScience 50:783-792.

 

Oklahoma Department of Wildlife Conservation Report. 2008. Distribution and Ecology of Alligator Gar in Oklahoma. July 1, 2005 through June 30, 2008.

 

O'Connell, M.T., T.D. Shepherd, A.M.U. O'Connell, and R.A. Myers. 2007. Long-term declines in two apex predators, bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) and alligator gar (Atractosteus spatula), in Lake Pontchartrain, an oligohaline estuary in southeastern Louisiana. Estuaries and Coasts, Volume 30, Number 4, pp. 567-574.

 

Ostrand, K.G., M.L. Thies, D.D. Hall, and M. Carpenter. 1996. Gar ichthyootoxin: Its effect on natural predators and the toxin's evolutionary function. Southwestern Naturalist . Vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 375-377.

 

Page, L. M. and B. M. Burr. 1991. A field guide to freshwater fishes. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, MA.

 

Pflieger, W. L. 1997. The fishes of Missouri. Missouri Department of Conservation. Jefferson City, MO.

 

Pigg, Jimmie. 1977. A Survey of the Fishes of the Muddy Boggy River in South Central Oklahoma. Proceedings of the Oklahoma Academy of Science. 57:68-82.

 

Pigg, Jimmie. 1982. Noteworthy Distribution and Habitat Records for Four Oklahoma Fishes. Proceedings of the Oklahoma Academy of Science 62:93-94

 

Poly, W. J. 2001. Distribution of the alligator gar, Atractosteus spatula (Lacepede, 1803), in Illinois. Transactions of the Illinois State Academy of Science 94:185-190.

Power, M. E., G. Parker, W. E. Dietrich, A. Sun, and J. T. Wootton. 1995. Hydraulic food-chain models. BioScience 45:159-167.

 

Raquel, P. F. 1992. Record of the alligator gar (Lepisosteus spatula) from the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta. California Fish and Game 78(4):169-171.

 

Raney, E.C. 1942. Alligator gar feeds upon birds in Texas. Copeia 1942(1):50.

 

Redford, K. H., and B. D. Richter. 1999. Conservation of biodiversity in a world of use. Conservation Biology 13:1246-1256.

 

Renfro, J. L. (1967). Factors influencing aerial breathing and metabolism in gars. (MS). Norman, Oklahoma, The University of Oklahoma.

 

Revol, A., M.d.L.G. Rodriguez, V.H. Montenegro, C. Aguilera, H. B. Saldana, and R. Mendoza. 2005. Cloning of the hormone cDNA of alligator gar Atractosteus spatula and its expression through larval development. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology - Part A: Molecular & Integrative Physiology Volume 140, Issue 4, Pages 423-429.

 

Ricciardi, A., and J. B. Rasmussen. 1999. Extinction rates of North American freshwater fauna. Conservation Biology 13:1220-1222.

 

Riggs, C.D., and E.W. Bonn. 1959. An annotated list of the fishes of Lake Texoma, Oklahoma and Texas. The Southwestern Naturalist 4(4):157-168.

 

Robertson, C.R., S.C. Zeug, and K.O. Winemiller. 2007. Associations between hydrological connectivity and resource partitioning among sympatric gar species (Lepisosteidae) in a Texas river and associated oxbows. Ecology of Freshwater Fish, Volume17, Number 1, March 2008, pp. 119-129(11)

 

Robins, C.R., R.M. Bailey, C.E. Bond, J.R. Brooker, E.A. Lachner, R.N. Lea, and W.B. Scott. 1991. Common and scientific names of fishes from the United States and Canada. American Fisheries Society, Special Publishing 20. 183 pp.

 

Robison, H. W., and T.M. Buchanan. 1988. Fishes of Arkansas. University of Arkansas Press. Fayetteville, AR.

 

Ross, S. 2001. The Inland Fishes of Mississippi. University Press of Mississippi, Jackson. 624 pp.

 

Sabo, M. J., and W. E. Kelso. 1991. Relationship between morphometry of excavated floodplain ponds along the Mississippi River and their use as fish nurseries. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 120:552-561.

 

Sakaris, P. C., A. M. Ferrara, K. J. Kleiner, and E. R. Irwin. 2003. Movements and home ranges of alligator gar in the Mobile-Tensaw Delta, Alabama. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Southeastern Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies 57:102-111.

 

Saksena, V. P. (1963). Effects of temperature, light, feeding, and activity on the rate of aerial breathing of gar (Lepisosteus). Norman, Oklahoma, The University of Oklahoma.

 

Sammons, S. M., P. W. Bettoli, D. A. Isermann, and T. N. Churchill. 2002. Recruitment variation of crappies in response to hydrology of Tennessee reservoirs. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 22:1393-1398.

 

Scarnecchia, D. L. 1992. A reappraisal of gars and bowfins in fishery management. Fisheries 17:6-12.

 

Seidensticker, E. P. 1987. Food selection of alligator gar and longnose gar in a Texas reservoir. Procedings of the Annual Conference of the Southeast Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies 41:100-104.

 

Simon, T. P., and R. Wallus. 1989. Contributions the early life histories of gar (Actinopterygii: Lepisosteidae) in the Ohio and Tennessee River Basins with Emphasis on Larval Development. Transactions of the Kentucky Academy of Science 50:59-74.

 

Simon, T.P. 1999. Assessment of Balon’s reproductive guilds with application to Midwestern North American Freshwater Fishes, pp. 97-121. In: Simon, T.L. (ed.). Assessing the sustainability and biological integrity of water resources using fish communities. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida. 671 pp.

 

Simon, T. P. 2006. Biodiversity of fishes in the Wabash River: status, indicators, and threats. Proceedings of the Indiana Academy of Sciences. Vol. 115, no. 2, pp. 136-148.

 

Smith, P. W. 1979. The fishes of Illinois. Univ. Illinois Press, Urbana. 314 pp.

 

Snedden, G. A., W. E. Kelso, and D. A. Rutherford. 1999. Diel and seasonal patterns of spotted gar movement and habitat use in the lower Atchafalaya River Basin, Louisiana. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 128:144-154.

 

Sommer, T. R., M. L. Nobriga, W. C. Harrell, W. Batham, and W. J. Kimmerer. 2001. Floodplain rearing of juvenile Chinook salmon: evidence of enhanced growth and survival. Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 58:325-333.

 

Sommer, T. R., W. C. Harrell, R. Kurth, F. Feyrer, S. C. Zeug, and G. O’Leary. 2004. Ecological patterns of early life stages of fishes in a large river-floodplain of the San Fransisco Estuary. American Fisheries Society Symposium 39:111-123.

 

Sparks, R. E. 1995. Need for ecosystem management of large rivers and their floodplains. BioScience 45:168-182.

 

Sparks, R. E., J. C. Nelson, and Y. Yin. 1998. Naturalization of the flood regime in regulated rivers. BioScience 48:706-720.

 

Stone, R. 2007. The last of the leviathans. Science 316:1684-1688.

 

Sulya, L. L, B.E. Box, and G. Gunter. 1961. Plasma proteins in the blood of fishes from the Gulf of Mexico. Am J. Physiol 200:152-154.

 

Suttkus, R. D. 1963. Order Lepisostei. in Bigelow, H. B., and W. C. Schroeder, editors. Fishes of the western North Atlantic. Memoirs of the Sears Foundation for Marine Research I, part 3. Order Lepisostei, pp. 61-88. in: Bigelow et al. 1963. Fishes of the Western North Atlantic. Soft-rayed Bony Fishes, Vol. 1, pt. 3. Memoir, Sears Foundation of Marine Research, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut.

 

Theiling, C. H., J. K. Tucker, and F. A. Cronin. 1999. Flooding and fish diversity in a reclaimed river-wetland. Journal of Freshwater Ecology 14:469-475.

 

Todd, R.M. 2005. Tennessee Alligator Gar Management Plan. Fisheries Management Division. Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency. Nashville, TN.

 

Trautman, M. B. 1981. The fishes of Ohio. Second edition. Ohio State Univ. Press, Columbus. 782 pp.

 

Turner, T. F., J. C. Trexler, G. L. Miller, and K. E. Toyer. 1994. Temporal and spatial dynamics of larval and juvenile fish abundance in a temperate floodplain river. Copeia 1:174-183.

 

Vitousek, P. K., H. A. Mooney, J. Lubchenco, and J. M. Melillo. 1997. Human domination of earth’s ecosystems. Science 277:494-499.

 

Wailes, B.L.C. 1854. Report on the agriculture and geology of Mississippi. E. Barksdale, State Printer, Jackson.

 

Ward, J. V., K. Tockner, and F. Schiemer. 1999. Biodiversity of floodplain river ecosystems: ecotones and connectivity. Regulated Rivers: Research and Management 15:125-139.

 

Wardle, W.J. 1990. Experimental verification of the matecercarial stage of Rhipdocotyle lepisostei (Trematoda: Bucephalidae) with notes on the natural occurrence of its adult stage in gars in Texas and Virginia. Journal of Parasitology 76(2):293-295.

 

Warren, M. L., P. L. Angermeier, B. M. Burr, and W. R. Haag. 1997. Decline of a diverse fish fauna: patterns of imperilment and protection in the southeastern United States. Pages 105-164 in G. W. Benz and D. E. Collins, editors. Aquatic fauna in peril: the southeastern perspective. Special Publication 1, Southeast Aquatic Research Institute, Lenz Design and Communications, Decatur, GA.

 

Warren, M. L., B. M. Burr, S. J. Walsh, H. L. Bart, R. C. Cashner, D. A. Etnier, B. J. Freeman, B. R. Kuhajda, R. L. Mayden, H.W. Robison, S. T. Ross, and W. C. Starnes. 2000. Diversity, distribution, and conservation status of the native freshwater fishes of the southern United States. Fisheries 25:7-31.

 

Welcomme, R. L. 1979. Fisheries ecology of floodplain rivers. Longman Group Limited, London.

 

Wilcove, D. S., D. Rothstein, J. Dubow, A. Phillips, and E. Losos. 1998. Quantifying threats to imperiled species in the United States. Bioscience 48:607-615.

 

Wiley, E. O. 1976. The phylogeny and biogeography of fossil and recent gars (Actinopterygii: Lepisosteidae). Miscellaneous Publications of the Museum of Natural History of the University of Kansas 64:1-111.

 

Williams, J. E., J. E. Johnson, D. A. Hendrickson, S. Contreras-Balderas, J. D. Williams, M. Navarro-Mendoza, D. E. McAllister, and J. E. Deacon. 1989. Fishes of North America endangered, threatened, or of special concern: 1989. Fisheries 14:2-20.

 

Winston Jr., Winston Dix. (1967). The effects of temperature and light on the rate of aerial breathing of the alligator gar, Lepisosteus spatula. (MS). Norman, Oklahoma, The University of Oklahoma.

 

Worsham, James Robert. (1965). The behavior of young gar Lepisosteus sp. in aquaria with notes on young gar in Lake Texoma. (MS). Norman, Oklahoma, The University of Oklahoma.

 

Zeug, S. C., K. O. Winemiller, and S. Tarim. 2005. Response of Brazos river oxbow fish assemblages to patterns of hydrologic connectivity and environmental variability. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 134:1389-1399.

 

Zeug, S. C., and K. O. Winemiller. 2007. Ecological correlates of fish reproductive

activity in floodplain rivers: a life-history-based approach. Canadian Journal of

Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 64:1291-1301.

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