USFWS
Arctic National Wildlife Refuge
Alaska Region   

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Partial Bibliography of Scientific Publications

General Arctic Refuge Overview Muskox
Polar Bear Birds
Predators Fish
Moose Vegetation
Caribou Water

General Arctic Refuge Overview

Bird, K. J., and L. B. Magoon, eds. 1987. Petroleum geology of the northern part of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, northeastern Alaska. U.S. Geological Survey Bulletin 1778. 329 pp.

Clough, N. K., Patton, P.C., and Christiansen, A.C., eds. 1987. Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska, coastal plain resource assessment - Report and recommendation to the Congress of the United States and final legislative environmental impact statement. U.S. Department of Interior, Washington D.C.

Garner, G. W., and P. E. Reynolds. 1986. Final report - baseline study of the fish, wildlife, and their habitats. Arctic National Wildlife Refuge Coastal Plain Resource Assessment. (several volumes). U.S. Department of Interior, Fish and Wildlife Service, Anchorage, Alaska.

National Research Council. 2003. Cumulative environmental effects of oil and gas activities on Alaska's North Slope. The National Academies Press, Washington D.C.

T. R. McCabe, B. Griffith, N. E. Walsh, and D. D. Young, editors. 1992. Terrestrial Research: 1002 Area - Arctic NWR Interim Report 1988 - 1990. U.S. Fish Wildlife Service, Anchorage, Alaska. 432 pp.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1995. A Preliminary Review of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska Coastal Plain Resource Assessment: Report and Recommendation to the Congress of the United States and Final Legislative Environmental Impact Statement. August 29, 1995. Report written for the Special Assistant to the Secretary of the Interior for Alaska.

U.S. Geological Survey. 1999. The Oil and Gas Resource Potential of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge 1002 Area, Alaska. Open File Report 98-34 and Fact Sheet FS-040-98. U.S. Department of the Interior, Geological Survey, Reston, VA.

Polar Bear

Amstrup, S. C. 1993. Human disturbances of denning polar bears in Alaska. Arctic 46:246-250.

Amstrup, S. C., and C. Gardner. 1994. Polar bear maternity denning in the Beaufort Sea. Journal of Wildlife Management 58:1-10.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 1995. Habitat Conservation Strategy for Polar Bears in Alaska. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Alaska Region, Anchorage, Alaska.

Predators

Haugen, H. S. 1987. Den-site behavior, summer diet, and skull injuries of wolves in Alaska. M.S. thesis. University of Alaska, Fairbanks. 205pp.

Phillips, M. K.1986. Behavior and habitat use of grizzly bears in northeastern Alaska. M.S. thesis. University of Alaska, Fairbanks

Reynolds, H. V. and G. W. Garner. 1987. Patterns of grizzly bear predation on caribou in northern Alaska. Proceedings International Conference on Bear Research and Management. 7:59-67.

Weiler, G. J. and G. W. Garner. 1987. Wolves of the Arctic NWR: Their seasonal movements and prey relationships. in G. Garner and P. Reynolds, editors. 1985 Update Rep. Baseline Study of Fish, Wildlife, and their Habitats. U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Anchorage, Alaska 1281 pp.

Young, D. D., G. W. Garner, R. Ambrose, H. Reynolds, and T. R. McCabe. 1992. Differential impacts of predators (brown bears, wolves, golden eagles) on caribou calving in the 1002 Area and potential displacement areas: an assessment of predation risks. Pages 37-66 in T. R. McCabe, B. Griffith, N. E. Walsh, and D. D. Young, editors. Terrestrial Research: 1002 Area - Arctic NWR Interim Report 1988 - 1990. U.S. Fish Wildlife Service, Anchorage, Alaska. 432 pp.

Moose

Mauer, F. J. 1998. Moose Migration: Northeastern Alaska to northwestern Yukon Territory, Canada. Alces 34(1):75-81.

Caribou

Ballard, W. B., M. A. Cronin, and H. A. Whitlaw. 2000. Caribou and oilfields. Pages 85-104 in J. C. Truett and S. R. Johnson, editors. The natural history of an arctic oil field-development and the biota. Academic Press. 422pp.

Burkholder, B.L. and D. Watt. 1961. Progress report, Arctic National Wildlife Range. Unpublished report. Arctic National Wildlife Refuge files. Fairbanks, Alaska. 9pp.

Cameron, R. D. 1995. Distribution and productivity of the Central Arctic Herd in relation to petroleum development: case history studies with a nutritional perspective. Federal Aid in Wildife Restoration Final Report. Alaska Department of Fish and Game. Juneau. 35pp.

Cameron, R. D., E. A. Lenart, D. J. Reed, K. R. Whitten, and W. T. Smith. 1995. Abundance and movements of caribou in the oilfield complex near Prudhoe Bay, Alaska. Rangifer 15:3-7.

Cameron, R. D., D. J. Reed, J. R. Dau, and W. T. Smith. 1992. Redistribution of calving caribou in response to oil field development on the arctic slope of Alaska. Arctic 45:338-342.

Cameron, R. D., W. T. Smith, R.G. White, and B. Griffith, B. 2002. The Central Arctic Caribou Herd. Pages 38-45 in D.C. Douglas, P.E. Reynolds, and E.B. Rhode, editors. Arctic Refuge coastal plain terrestrial wildlife research summaries. U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, Biological Science Report USGS/BRD/BSR-2002-0001.

Cameron, R. D., and K. R. Whitten. 1979. Seasonal movements and sexual segregation of caribou determined by aerial survey. Journal of Wildlife Management. 43:626-633.

Cameron, R. D., K. R. Whitten, W. T. Smith, and D. D. Roby. 1979. Caribou distribution and group composition associated with construction of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline. Canadian Field Naturalist. 93:155-162.

Cronin, M. A., S. C. Amstrup, G. M. Durner, L. E. Noel, T. L. McDonald, and W. B. Ballard. 1998. Caribou distribution during the post-calving period in relation to infrastructure in the Prudhoe Bay oil field, Alaska. Arctic 51:85-93.

Cronin, M. A., B. J. Pierson, S. R. Johnson, L. E. Noel, and W. B. Ballard. 1997. Caribou population density in the Prudhoe Bay region of Alaska. Journal of Wildlife Research 2:59-68.

Curatolo, J. A., and S. M. Murphy. 1986. The effects of pipelines, roads, and traffic on the movements of caribou, Rangifer tarandus. Canadian Field-Naturalist 100:218-224.

Dau, J. R., and R. D. Cameron. 1986. Effects of a road system on caribou distribution during calving. Rangifer, Special Issue No. 1:95-101.

Fancy, S. G., L. F. Pank, K. R. Whitten, and W. L. Reglin. 1989. Seasonal movements of caribou in arctic Alaska as determined by satellite. Canadian Journal of Zoology 67:644-650.

Fancy, S. G., K. R. Whitten, and D. E. Russell. 1994. Demography of the Porcupine caribou herd, 1983-1992. Canadian Journal of Zoology 72:840-846.

Fancy, S. G., and K. R. Whitten. 1991. Selection of calving sites by Porcupine herd caribou. Canadian Journal of Zoology. 69:1736-1743.

Griffith, B., D. C. Douglas, N. E. Walsh, D. D. Young, T. R. McCabe, D. E. Russell, R. G. White, R. D. Cameron, and K. R. Whitten. 2002. The Porcupine caribou herd. Pages 8-37 in D. C. Douglas, P. E. Reynolds, and E. B. Rhode, editors. Arctic Refuge coastal plain terrestrial wildlife research summaries. U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, Biological Science Report USGS/BRD/BSR-2002-0001.

Klein, D. R. 1991. Caribou in the changing North. Applied Animal Behaviour Science 29:279-291.

Murphy, S. M., and B. E. Lawhead. 2000. Caribou. Pages 59-84 in J.C. Truett and S.R. Johnson, editors. The natural history of an arctic oil field: development and biota. Academic Press, New York, New York. 422 pp.

Murphy, S. M., D. E. Russell, and R. G. White. 2000. Modeling energetics and demographic consequences of caribou interactions with oil development in the Arctic. Rangifer Special Issue No. 12:107-109.

Nellemann, C., and R. D. Cameron. 1996. Effects of petroleum development on terrain preferences of calving caribou. Arctic 49:23-28.

Nellemann, C., and R. D. Cameron. 1998. Cumulative impacts of an evolving oil-field complex on the distribution of calving caribou. Canadian Journal of Zoology 76:1425-1430.

Noel, L. E., R. H. Pollard, W. B. Ballard, and M. A. Cronin. 1998. Activity and use of active gravel pads and tundra by caribou, Rangifer tarandus granti, within the Prudhoe Bay oil field, Alaska. Canadian Field-Naturalist 112:400-409.

Pollard, R. H., W. B. Ballard, L. E. Noel, and M. A. Cronin. 1996. Parasitic insect abundance and microclimate of gravel pads and tundra within the Prudhoe Bay oil field, Alaska, in relation to use by caribou, Rangifer tarandus granti. Canadian Field-Naturalist 110:649-658.

Pollard, R. H., W. B. Ballard, L. E. Noel, and M. A. Cronin. 1996. Summer distribution of caribou, Rangifer tarandus granti, in the area of the Prudhoe Bay oil field, Alaska, 1990-1994. Canadian Field-Naturalist 110:659-674.

Russell, D. E., D. van de Wetering, R. G. White, and K. L. Gerhart. 1996. Oil and the Porcupine caribou herd-can we quantify the impacts? Rangifer Special Issue No. 9:255-257.

Sheldon, J. F. 1988. Oil versus caribou in the Arctic: the great debate. Polar Record 24:95-100.

Skoog, R. O., R. F. Batchelor, F. F. Jones, and R. L. Winters. 1963. Caribou investigations. Annual Proj. Seg. Rept., Fed. Aid in Wildl. Rest. Act. Proj. W-6-R-3, Work Plan C. AK Dept. Fish and Game. Juneau. 14pp.]

Smith, W. T., and R. D. Cameron. 1985. Reactions of large groups of caribou to a pipeline corridor on the arctic coastal plain of Alaska. Arctic. 38:53-57.

Smith, W. T., R. D. Cameron, and D. J. Reed. 1994. Distribution and movements of caribou in relation to roads and pipelines, Kuparuk Development Area, 1978-1990. Alaska Department of Fish and Game Wildlife Technical Bulletin. 12. 54pp.

Walsh, N. E., S. G. Fancy, T. R. McCabe, and L. F. Pank. 1992. Habitat use by the Porcupine caribou herd during predicted insect harassment. Journal of Wildlife Management 465-473.

Walsh, N. E., B. Griffith, and T. R. McCabe. 1995. Evaluating growth of the Porcupine caribou herd using a stochastic model. Journal of Wildlife Management 59:262-272.

Whitten, K. R., and R. D. Cameron. 1983. Movements of collared caribou, Rangifer tarandus, in relation to petroleum development on the arctic slope of Alaska. Canadian Field-Naturalist. 97(2):143-146.

Whitten, K. R., and R. D. Cameron. 1985. Distribution of caribou calving in relation to the Prudhoe Bay oilfield. In: Martell, A. M., and D. E. Russell, eds. Proceedings of the First North American Caribou Workshop, Whitehorse, Yukon. Ottawa: Canadian Wildlife Service. 33-39.

Whitten, K. R., G. W. Garner, F. J. Mauer, and R. B. Harris. 1992. Productivity and early calf survival in the Porcupine caribou herd. Journal of Wildlife Management. 56:201-212.

Young, D.D., T.R. McCabe. 1998. Grizzly bears and calving caribou: what is the relation with river corridors? Journal of Wildlife Management 62:255-261.

Muskox

Nellemann, C. H. and P. E. Reynolds. 1997. Terrain preferences associated with patterns of late winter distribution of muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus). Arctic and Alpine Research. 29(3).

O'Brien, C. M. 1988. Characterization of muskox habitat in northeastern Alaska. M.S. thesis. University of Alaska, Fairbanks, Alaska.

Reynolds, P. E. 1992. Population dynamics of muskoxen on the Arctic Coastal Plain: productivity and dispersal as a natural regulator of population size in the 1002 Area of Arctic NWR. Pages 1-20 in T. R. McCabe, B. Griffith, N. E. Walsh, and D. D. Young, editors. Terrestrial Research: 1002 Area - Arctic NWR Interim Report 1988 - 1990. U.S. Fish Wildlife Service, Anchorage, Alaska. 432 pp.

Reynolds, P. E. 1992. Winter distribution, movements and habitat use of muskoxen on potential petroleum lease areas of the Arctic NWR. Pages 130-147 in T. R. McCabe, B. Griffith, N. E. Walsh, and D. D. Young, editors. Terrestrial Research: 1002 Area - Arctic NWR Interim Report 1988 - 1990. U.S. Fish Wildlife Service, Anchorage, Alaska. 432 pp.

Reynolds, P. E. 1992. Seasonal differences in the distribution and movements of muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) in northeastern Alaska. Rangifer 12(3) pp 171-172.

Reynolds, P. E. 1993. Dynamics of muskox groups in northeastern Alaska. Rangifer 13(2)83-89.

Reynolds, P. E. 1994. Muskoxen on the move: expansion of a re-established population. Trans. of the 59th North American Wildlife Natural Resource Conference 59 (abstract).

Reynolds, P. E. 1998. Dynamics and range expansion of a reestablished muskox population. Journal of Wildlife Management 62:734-744.

Reynolds, P. E. 1998. Ecology of a reestablished population of muskoxen in northeastern Alaska. PhD thesis. University of Alaska, Fairbanks. 105pp.

Reynolds, P. E., K. J. Wilson, and D. R. Klein. 2002. Muskoxen. Pages 54-64 in D.C. Douglas, P.E. Reynolds, and E.B. Rhode, editors. Arctic Refuge coastal plain terrestrial wildlife research summaries. U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, Biological Science Report USGS/BRD/BSR-2002-0001.

Reynolds, P. E., H. V. Reynolds, and R. T. Shideler. 2002. Predation and multiple kills of muskoxen by grizzly bears. Ursus 13:79-84.

Robus, M. A. 1981. Muskox habitat and use patterns in northeastern Alaska. M.S. thesis, University of Alaska-Fairbanks, Fairbanks, AK. 116pp.

Wilson, K. J. 1992. Spatial scales of muskox resource selection in late winter. M.S. thesis. University of Alaska, Fairbanks. 90pp.

Wilson, K. J., D. R. Klein, and P. E. Reynolds. 1992. Assessments of the characteristics of muskox winter habitat in potential lease areas of the Arctic NWR, Alaska. Pages 309-340 in T. R. McCabe, B. Griffith, N. E. Walsh, and D. D. Young, editors. Terrestrial Research: 1002 Area - Arctic NWR Interim Report 1988 - 1990. U.S. Fish Wildlife Service, Anchorage, Alaska. 432 pp.

Birds

Brackney, A. W. 1990. Distribution, abundance, and productivity of fall staging snow geese on the coastal plain of the Arctic NWR, 1989. Pages 11-13 in T. R. McCabe, editor. Annual Wildlife Inventories: 1002 Area - Arctic NWR Annual Progress Report 1989. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Anchorage, Alaska.

Brackney, A. W. 1990. Abundance and productivity of tundra swans in the coastal plain of the Arctic NWR, 1989. Pages 14-16 in T. R. McCabe, editor. Annual Wildlife Inventories: 1002 Area - Arctic NWR Annual Progress Report 1989. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Anchorage, Alaska.

Brackney, A. W., and J. W. Hupp. 1993. Fall diet of Snow Geese staging in northeastern Alaska. Journal of Wildlife Management. 57:55-61.

Hupp, J. W., and D. G. Robertson. 1992. Potential impacts of petroleum development on Lesser Snow Geese staging on the Arctic Coastal Plain. Pages 207-230 in T. R. McCabe, B. Griffith, N. E. Walsh, and D. D. Young, editors. Terrestrial Research: 1002 Area - Arctic NWR Interim Report 1988 - 1990. U.S. Fish Wildlife Service, Anchorage, Alaska. 432 pp.

Hupp, J. W., and D. G. Robertson. 1998. Forage site selection by lesser snow geese during autumn staging on the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska. Wildlife Monograph No. 138. 40 pp.

Martin, P. D., J. G. Kidd and D. C. Anthon. 1990. Migratory bird use of potential port sites on the Beaufort sea coast of the Arctic NWR. Pages 1-18 in T. R. McCabe, editor. Terrestrial Research: 1002 Area - Arctic NWR Annual Progress Report 1989. U.S. Fish Wildlife Service, Anchorage, Alaska.

Monda, M. J. 1991. Reproductive ecology of tundra swans on the Arctic NWR. Ph.D. thesis. Univ. Idaho, Moscow, Idaho. 94 pp.

Monda, M. J., J. T. Ratti, and T. R. McCabe. 1992. Reproductive ecology of tundra swans on the Arctic NWR, Alaska. Pages 231-274 in T. R. McCabe, B. Griffith, N. E. Walsh, and D. D. Young, editors. Terrestrial Research: 1002 Area - Arctic NWR Interim Report 1988 - 1990. U.S. Fish Wildlife Service, Anchorage, Alaska. 432 pp.

Monda, M. J., J. T. Ratti and T. R. McCabe. 1993. Behavioral responses of nesting tundra swans to human disturbance and implications from nest predation on the Arctic NWR. Proc. 14th Trumpeter Swan Society Conference. Courtenary, British Columbia, Canada. p. 178 (Abstract)

Monda, M. J., J. T. Ratti, and T. R. McCabe. 1994. Reproductive ecology of tundra swans on the Arctic NWR, Alaska. Journal of Wildlife Management. 58(4):757-773.

Monda, M. J., J. T. Ratti and T. R. McCabe. 1994. Modification of Tundra Swan habitat by repeated use of nesting territories. Proc. 14th Trumpeter Swan Society Conference. Courtenary, British Columbia, Canada. p. 179 (Abstract)

Oates, R. M., P. D. Martin and D. C. Anthon. 1989. Migratory bird use of potential port sites on the Beaufort sea coast of the Arctic NWR. Pages 1-32 in T. R. McCabe, editor. Terrestrial Research: 1002 Area - Arctic NWR Annual Progress Report 1988. U.S. Fish Wildlife Service, Anchorage, Alaska.

Willms, M. A. 1992. Arctic National Wildlife Refuge migratory bird use of potential port sites, Final Report. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Anchorage, Alaska. 126 pp.

Willms, M.A. and D.W. Crowley. 1992. Migratory birds use of potential port sites on the Beaufort Sea coast of the Arctic NWR. Pages 1-28 in T. R. McCabe, B. Griffith, N. E. Walsh, and D. D. Young, editors. Terrestrial Research: 1002 Area - Arctic NWR Interim Report 1988 - 1990. U.S. Fish Wildlife Service, Anchorage, Alaska. 432 pp.

Fish

Underwood, T.J., J. A. Gordon, and B. M. Osborne. 1992. Fish population characteristics of Arctic National Wildlife Refuge coastal waters, summer 1990. Alaska Fisheries Progress Report Number 92-3. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Anchorage, Alaska.

Underwood, T. J., J. A. Gordon, L. A. Thorpe, and B. M. Osborne. 1994. Fish population characteristics of Arctic National Wildlife Refuge coastal waters, summer 1991. Alaska Fisheries Progress Report Number 94-1. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Anchorage, Alaska.

Underwood, T. J., J. A. Gordon, M. J. Millard, L. A. Thorpe, and B. M. Osborne. 1995. Characteristics of selected fish populations of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge Coastal Waters, Final Report, 1988-1991. Fisheries Technical Report Number 28. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Fairbanks Fishery Resource Office, Fairbanks, Alaska.

Underwood, T. J., M. J. Millard, and L. A. Thorpe. 1996. Characteristics of Dolly Varden in nearshore waters of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society. 125:719-728.

Underwood, T. J., D. E. Palmer, L. A. Thorpe, and B. M. Osborne. 1997. Weight-length relationships and the variation of Dolly Varden condition in coastal waters of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska. American Fisheries Society Symposium. 19:295-309.

Wiswar, D. W. 1991. Summer distribution of fishes in the Okpilak and Akutoktak rivers, Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska 1989. Alaska Fisheries Technical Report Number 11. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Fairbanks Fishery Resource Office, Fairbanks, Alaska.

Wiswar, D. W. 1992. Summer distribution of fishes in the Okpilak and Akutoktak, Katakturuk, and Jago rivers, Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska 1990. Alaska Fisheries Technical Report Number 17. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Fairbanks Fishery Resource Office, Fairbanks, Alaska.

Wiswar, D. W. 1994. Summer distribution of Arctic fishes in the 1002 area of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska 1991 with special emphasis on selected lakes, tundra streams, and the Sadlerochit river drainage. Alaska Fisheries Technical Report Number 27. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Fairbanks Fishery Resource Office, Fairbanks, AK.

Wiswar, D.W., R. L. West, and W.N. Winkleman. 1995. Fisheries investigation in Oruktalik Lagoon, Arctic Lagoon, Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska. 1986. Alaska Fisheries Technical Report No. 27, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Fairbanks, Fishery Resource Office, Fairbanks, AK.

Vegetation

Anonymous. 2000. Arctic National Wildlife Refuge long-term monitoring of recovery of trails from winter seismic exploration. Arctic Research of the United States 14:32-33.

Bureau of Land Management. 1998. "Northeast National Petroleum Reserve-Alaska, Final Integrated Activity Plan/Environmental Impact Statement, Volume 1" prepared in cooperation with the Minerals Management Service, August, 1998.

Emers, M., J. C. Jorgenson, and M. K. Raynolds. 1995. Response of Arctic plant communities to winter vehicle disturbance. Canadian Journal of Botany 73:905-919.

Emers M. and J. C. Jorgenson. 1997. Effects of winter seismic exploration on the vegetation and soil thermal regime of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge. In Crawford, R. M. M. Ed., 1997. Disturbance and recovery in Arctic lands: an ecological perspective. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, the Netherlands.

Felix, N. A. and M. K. Raynolds. 1989. The role of snow cover in limiting surface disturbance caused by winter seismic exploration. Arctic 42(2):62-68.

Felix, N. A. and M. K. Raynolds. 1989. The effects of winter seismic trails on tundra vegetation in northeastern Alaska, U.S.A. Arctic and Alpine Research 21(2):188-202.

Felix, N. A., M. K. Raynolds, J. C. Jorgenson, and K. E. DuBois. 1992. Resistance and resilience of tundra plant communities to disturbance by winter seismic vehicles. Arctic and Alpine Research 42(4):362-367.

Gallant, A. L., E. F. Binnian, J. M. Omernik, and M. B. Shasby. 1995. Ecoregions of Alaska. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 1567. U.S. Gov. Printing Office, Washington, D.C.

Jorgenson, J. C., M. S. Udevitz, and N. A. Felix. 2002. Forage quantity and quality. Pages 46-50 in D.C. Douglas, P.E. Reynolds, and E.B. Rhode, editors. Arctic Refuge coastal plain terrestrial wildlife research summaries. U.S. Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, Biological Science Report USGS/BRD/BSR-2002-0001.

Raynolds, M. K. and N. A. Felix. 1989. Airphoto analysis of winter seismic disturbance in northeastern Alaska. Arctic 42:(4)362-367

Water

Lyons, S. M., and J. M. Trawicki 1994. Water resource inventory and assessment, coastal plain, Arctic National Wildlife Refuge: 1987-1992 Final Report. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Water Resource Branch Anchorage, AK. WRB 94-3.

Trawicki, J. M. , S. M. Lyons and G. V. Elliott. 1991. Distribution and quantification of water within lakes of the 1002 area, Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska. Alaska Fisheries Technical Report No. 10. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Anchorage, AK.


September 12, 2008