Connecticut River Coordinator's Office
Northeast Region
 
Photo of American shad viewed through a window at the Holyoke Dam. Credit: USFWS
Photo of American shad viewed through a window at the Holyoke Dam. Credit: USFWS

Connecticut River Atlantic Salmon Commission
February 4, 1992

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Preface

This plan is endorsed by the Connecticut River Atlantic Salmon Commission for implementation in its efforts to restore anadromous fishes to the Connecticut River basin. The plan was prepared by the Shad Studies Subcommittee under authority of the Technical Committee for Fisheries Management of the Connecticut River. The Subcommittee serves an advisory role to the Technical Committee and Commission regarding current management issues and information needs pertinent to shad and river herring restoration in the basin. The Subcommittee will also periodically revise the plan to reflect progress made toward realization of the restoration goal and objectives. Major revisions to the plan will require review and approval of the Commission.

- David F. Egan
Chairman, CRASC

Prepared by Shad Studies Subcommittee:

Kenneth Cox, Chairman, VT F & W
Carol Henderson, NH F & G
Boyd Kynard, USFWS
Ted Meyers, USFWS
John O'Leary, MA F & W
Tom Savoy, CT DEP

I. Introduction

In 1967, State (CT, MA, NH, VT) and Federal Fishery Agencies (USFWS, NMFS) signed a Statement of Intent for a cooperative fishery restoration program in the Connecticut River basin. The Statement called for the establishment of a population of two million shad to the mouth of the Connecticut River with passage of one million above Holyoke Dam, 850,000 above Turners Falls Dam, and 750,000 above Vernon Dam thus restoring shad to their historical range at Bellows Falls, Vermont. These goals were initially chosen based on an estimation of potential spawning habitat situated above each mainstem dam in relation to the total and fishway efficiencies experienced on the Columbia River. Efforts continue to try to meet these goals.

American shad population levels in the Connecticut River demonstrate natural variability (Figure 1) typical of Clupeid fishes. Annual spawning run estimates of American shad have varied from 386,000 to a high of 1,634,000 since 1966 (Table 1). The variability seen is the result of differences in recruitment of individual year-classes and has been shown to be related to environmental conditions (Crecco and Savoy 1984).

Fish passage facilities, providing upstream access for American shad to Bellows Falls, Vermont, were improved at Holyoke Dam by 1976, and completed at Turners Falls and Vernon Dams in 1980 and 1981, respectively. Poor passage within the fish ladders at Turners Falls was improved by changing ladder flow patterns - prior to the 1983 and 1984 runs (Table 2). Similar modifications to improve passage efficiency through the Vernon fish ladder were made in advance of the 1984 and 1989 spawning runs.

Comparison of mean American shad population levels between pre and post 1976 Holyoke Lift improvements demonstrate little difference (Figure 1. 1966-1975, x=837,581; 1976-1990, x=828.426), however, recruitment of virgin American shad has increased slightly (Figure 2. 1966-1975, x=604,339; 1976-1984, x=718,506) coincident with fish passage improvements. This would suggest that a small increase in American shad production has resulted from restoring the American shad to their historic. range. Increased upriver fish passage at Holyoke without successful downstream passage facilities has resulted in a decline in the proportion of repeat spawners in the Connecticut River (Table 1). This places increased reliance on virgin spawning shad which may be a destabilizing influence on longterm population levels. Careful monitoring of age and spawning history as well as monitoring of proposed downstream passage facilities will be necessary.

During the period 1975-1979 no significant downriver passage of spent adult American shad was provided at Holyoke Dam. Beginning in 1980, a combination of techniques has been employed to provide passage around turbines at Holyoke (canal drawdowns, bascule gate opening, operation of the Boatlock Station Bypass)1 and in 1983 at Turners Falls Dam where the log sluice is opened for a period each day during June and July when adult shad are present (Table 3). These requests for bypass operations were first formalized in an Annual Notification Letter to individual dam operators in 1987 as a request from the fisheries agencies and then later through the FERC process in the case of Holyoke. The signing of the Memorandums of Agreement with Northeast Utilities Service Company (NUSCO) and New England Power Company (NEP) in 1990 provide specific dates for completion of bypass facilities at all applicable mainstem dams for American shad as well as Atlantic salmon (Appendices C and D). Careful monitoring of the population dynamics of the American shad population after these facilities are completed will be necessary to evaluate their effectiveness.

While efforts to restore American shad to the Connecticut River Basin have primarily addressed upstream passage issues in the mainstem river, similar issues have received attention in certain major tributaries. Of these tributaries, the Farmington River in Connecticut has received most of the attention to date. Shad passage discussions, however, are underway on the Westfield River in Massachusetts. Efforts have also been initiated to quantify and describe the contribution of tributaries to the shad sport fishery.

On the Connecticut River mainstem, one unanticipated benefit of the fishway at Bellows Falls dam is the expansion of the upstream range of American shad beyond their historic limit. It is not known whether shad will pass the Bellows Falls fishway in significant numbers, and how this range expansion could affect the Connecticut River shad population. Downstream passage for both adult shad and juvenile shad (should reproduction occur upriver from Bellows Falls) will be provided through the Atlantic salmon passage facilities scheduled for operation in 1994.

Detailed information on the biology and status of American shad stocks of the eastern United States, including the Connecticut River, is available in the fishery management plan developed by the Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission (1985). The purpose of the Connecticut River Basin plan is to identify management objectives and activities that are specific to the basin and essential to attaining full restoration of the species to the basin.

II. Management Goal

To restore and maintain a spawning shad population to its historic range in the Connecticut River basin and to provide and maintain sport and the traditional in-river commercial fisheries for the species.

III. Management Objectives

The seven management objectives listed below support the management goal. Each objective is followed by reference to tables and appendices which document progress on activities toward full achievement of the stated objective.

  1. Achieve and sustain an adult population of 1.5 to 2 million individuals entering the mouth of the Connecticut River annually. (Table 1)

  2. A maximum rate of exploitation shall not exceed 40% of the spawning population, based on a 5-year running average (Crecco and Savoy 1987). (Table 1)

  3. Achieve annual passage of 40 to 60% of the spawning run (based on a 5-year running average) at each successive upstream barrier on the Connecticut River mainstem. (Table 2)

  4. Maximize outmigrant survival for juvenile and spent adult shad. (Table 3)

  5. Enhance and promote the recreational opportunities associated with shad fishery management throughout the species' historical range. (Tables 4, 5, 6, & 7)

  6. Establish and maintain a permanent population monitoring program on the Connecticut River. (Appendix A)

  7. Establish an annual research program to address management programs associated with shad restoration goals and objectives. (Appendix B)

IV. Program Evaluation

The plan will be reviewed and, if necessary, revised annually to reflect current management problems and issues and progress made toward shad restoration in the Connecticut River basin.

Footnotes

1. Reports documenting the evaluation of the bypass techniques are cited under the references section.

V. References

Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission. 1985.
Fishery management plan for anadromous alosid stocks of the eastern United States: American shad. hickory shad, alewife, and blueback herring: phase II in interstate management planning for migratory alosids of the Atlantic coast. Washington. DC.


Crecco. V.A. and T. Savoy. 1985.
Density-dependent catchability and its potential causes and consequences on Connecticut River shad. Alosa sapidissima. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 42(10):1649-1657.


Crecco. V.A.. and T.F. Savoy. 1987.
Fishery management plan for American shad in the Connecticut River. Conn. Dept. of Envir. Protection. Hartford. CT. USA. 136 p.


Northeast Utilities Service. 1984.
Studies of outmigrating adult clupeids in the Holyoke Dam Canal System-1984. Final Report to NE Utilities Service. Hartford. Connecticut.


Northeast Utilities Service. 1985.
Studies of outmigrating adult clupeids in the Holyoke Dam Canal System-1985. Final Report to NE Utilities Service. Hartford. Connecticut.


Northeast Utilities Service. 1986.
Studies of outmigrating adult clupeids in the Holyoke Dam Canal System-1986. Final Report to NE Utilities Service. Hartford. Connecticut.


Northeast Utilities Service. 1987.
Studies of outmigrating adult clupeids in the Holyoke Dam Canal System-1987. Final Report to NE Utilities Service. Hartford. Connecticut.


Northeast Utilities Service. 1988.
Studies of outmigrating adult clupeids in the Holyoke Dam Canal System-1988. Final Report to NE Utilities Service. Hartford. Connecticut.


Northrop. R.B. 1978.
Fish guidance and control at power plant water intakes. Final Report to NE Utilities Service. Hartford. Connecticut.


O'Leary. J.A.. and B. Kynard. 1980.
Behavior of adult American shad and young of the year clupeids in underwater electric fields. Final Report to NE Utilities Service. Hartford, Connecticut.


O'Leary. J. A.. and B. Kynard. 1981.
Behavior of adult American shad and young of the year clupeids in underwater electric fields. Final Report to NE Utilities Service. Hartford. Connecticut.


O'Leary. J.A.. and B. Kynard. 1982.
Holyoke Dam fishery studies - 1981. Final Report to NE Utilities Service. Hartford. Connecticut.


O'Leary. J.A.. and B. Kynard. 1983.
Movements of radio-tagged fish during studies of downrunning adult American shad in the Holyoke Dam canal system - 1982. Final Report to NE Utilities Service, Hartford, Connecticut.


Savoy. T.. and D. Shake. 1991.
Population dynamics studies of American shad. Alosa sapiddisma. in the Connecticut River. Final completion Report for AFC-17. Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection. 50 p.


Taylor, R.. and B. Kynard. 1984.
Studies of downrunning adult alosids in the Holyoke Dam canal system -1983. Final Report to NE Utilities Service, Hartford, Connecticut. Shad Management Plan. 4 Feb. 1992


APPENDIX A. ANNUAL POPULATION MONITORING REQUIREMENTS

Requirements listed under this section are presented in order of priority, but all are required to monitor shad population status and trends from year to year.

  1. Population estimates for numbers of shad entering the Connecticut River.

  2. Estimates of shad sport harvest throughout the Connecticut River basin and commercial harvest at tidewater.

  3. Upstream and downstream passage counts for adult and juvenile shad with pertinent age structure and sex ratio data at each Connecticut River mainstem fish passage facility.

  4. An estimate of the relative abundance of juvenile shad produced in the Connecticut River basin.

APPENDIX B. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ACTIVITIES

The following studies and development projects were undertaken in 1991:

  1. Aquatec, Inc. monitored the relationship and effect Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Plant operation on American shad distribution, growth and population dynamics in the upper Turners Falls and lower Vernon impoundments. The sex ratio, fecundity and age distribution of adult American shad at the Turners Falls and Vernon Darn fishways was studied. Sampling of juvenile American shad occurred in the upper Turners Falls pool and in the lower Vernon pool.

  2. NUSCO and NEP conducted downstream fish passage studies for adult and juvenile American shad at each company's hydroelectric facilities in accordance with the MOA schedules.

  3. The USFWS Sunderland Office of Fishery Assistance sampled the American shad population below Cabot Station for length-weight data and sex ratios. Radio telemetry were tested.

  4. The Conte Anadromous Fish Research Center (CAFRC) conducted two studies on shad in 1991 that were aimed at understanding the behavior of adults in fishways: (1) experimental investigations of the choice of water flow habitat during the diel cycle of prespawned adults, and (2) development of a video system to monitor shad behavior in the Turners Falls fishway. CAFRC also developed the methods to conduct a detailed evaluation of the Turners Falls fishway in 1992. Juvenile shad studies to be undertaken by the CAFRC in 1991 included field studies using hydroacoustic techniques to determine the effect of physical environmental factors on migration ecology and migratory route.

APPENDIX C. CRASC-NUSCO DOWNSTREAM FISH PASSAGE MOA, JULY 26, 1990

ARTICLE I: PASSAGE AND STUDY DATES

  1. Holyoke Canal System

    NUSCO agrees to provide downstream passage facilities for Atlantic salmon and fish from the family Clupeidae at the Holyoke Canal System by April 1992. and to evaluate its effectiveness by November 1994.

  2. Hadley Falls Station

    NUSCO agrees to provide downstream passage facilities for Atlantic Salmon and fish from the family Clupeidae at the Hadley Falls Station by April 1993, and to evaluate its effectiveness by November 1995.

  3. Turners Falls Project

    If the Holyoke Canal System downstream passage facilities are initially successful, NUSCO agrees to provide downstream passage facilities for Atlantic salmon and fish from the family Clupeidae at the Turners Falls Project by April 1994. If significant continued modifications are needed at the Holyoke Canal System downstream passage facilities, the date for providing the Turners Falls Project downstream passage facilities may be delayed to April 1995. The decision as to the initial success of the Holyoke Canal System downstream passage facilities shall be made no later than October 1992.

  4. Northfield Project

    NUSCO agrees to complete studies and provide implementation schedules as required at the Northfield Project by March 1993.

APPENDIX D. CRASC-NEP DOWNSTREAM FISH PASSAGE MOA, JULY 26, 1990

ARTICLE II: SCHEDULE NECESSARY TO MEET PASSAGE DATES

  1. Overall Schedule

    The Company will follow the schedule of activities which is outlined below:

    VERNON

    • Through Spring 1990 - Physical model testing

    • Spring 1990 - Study and identify alternative systems. Conduct radio-tagged fish studies.

    • Summer 1990 - Install and operate. Vernon "fish pipe"

    • 1991 - Evaluate alternative systems with radio-tagged fish studies

    • 1992 to 1993 - Engineer and designed preferred system

    • Spring 1993 - Issue a notice to proceed with construction of preferred system**

    • April 1994 - Operate preferred system and monitor passage

    • 1994 to 1996 - Evaluate effectiveness and modify facility as necessary

** The issuance of a notice to proceed in this agreement means. notification of the selected contractor to proceed with construction as described and defined in the agreed on contract.

TABLE 1. Population estimates, year-class strength, exploitation rates, numbers and percentage of repeat spawners of American shad in the Connecticut River. 1966-1990.
Year Year-Class
Strength 1
Population
Estimate2
Exploit
Rate (%)
Repeat Spawners3
Females % Males %
1966 1026000 535000 28.7        
1967 559000 742000 19.8        
1968 266000 940000 13.0        
1969 575000 1185000 9.4        
1970 655000 1264000 10.0 133055 27 208112 27
1971 1000000 1188000 10.4 115812 25 326056 45
1972 344000 477000 19.3 51320 25 114288 42
1973 299000 421000 25.2 65612 40 51312 20
1974 594000 914000 12.0 89922 24 188709 35
1975 725000 847000 22.1 50170 16 138815 26
1976 653000 1040000 19.1 61158 12 185659 35
1977 1177000 386000 30.2 25507 10 32850 25
1978 861000 623000 16.2 55307 24 54934 14
1979 1062000 618000 14.2 69660 24 81825 25
1980 851000 745000 13.5 39337 11 120098 31
1981 402000 957000 17.4 74862 23 164275 26
1982 225000 1042000 12.0 23142 6 98511 15
1983 753000 1634000 12.2 116673 21 312761 29
1984 482000 1329000 12.0 78174 12 264435 39
1985   795000 16.4 71766 21 176673 39
1986   795000 27.7 37209 9 156467 41
1987   481000 32.7 70679 35 150590 54
1988   529000 24.6 33199 19 35475 10
1989   796000 16.7 200615 45 70056 20
1990   655000 14.6 51016 19 57957 15
  1. Year-class strength is the sum of virgin recruitment of 4, 5 and 6 year old shad (Savoy and Shake, 1991).

  2. Population estimates derived from Holyoke Lift rate numbers as described in Crecco and Savoy (1985).

  3. Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection Bureau of Marine Fisheries unpublished data taken from fish collected at the river mouth

Year Run Comm Sport Holyoke Lifted Parent May June Juv I Blue Ind C. Exp S. Exp Exp
1966 621300 97959 55601 16212 3.5 467740 565.6 246.0 32.8   15.8 10.4 28.7 %
1967 742300 96348 50251 19494 3.3 595701 963.7 436.8 20.2   13.0 6.8 19.8 %
1968 945800 85067 37166 24693 3.0 823567 546.7 603.0 11.1   9.0 4.0 13.0 %
1969 1108080 74658 36234 45349 4.5 997188 1004.4 375.1 19.0   6.7 3.1 9.4 %
1970 1140480 84178 42577 65751 6.5 1013725 855.8 243.8 27.8   7.4 4.0 11.1 %
1971 1128600 76242 47184 52719 5.2 1004574 1175.2 203.1 65.7   6.8 4.5 11.0 %
1972 390960 71908 20348 25572 8.6 298704 1458.5 616.0 15.3   18.4 6.4 23.6 %
1973 353700 87179 18945 25104 10.1 247576 896.9 534.2 12.7   24.6 7.1 30.0 %
1974 952560 78709 30883 53147 6.3 842968 991.7 334.6     8.3 3.5 11.5 %
1975 847530 123344 64151 114137 17.3 660035 627.1 378.8     14.6 8.9 22.1 %
1976 936900 138650 59696 346702 46.9 738554 839.1 286.5     14.8 7.5 21.2 %
1977 361890 97024 19543 202997 82.7 245323 962.0 322.5     26.8 7.4 32.2 %
1978 560700 85962 14979 144698 31.5 459759 798.6 468.6 18.6 209.8 15.3 3.2 18.0 %
1979 557010 73321 14071 255753 54.5 469618 904.5 448.4 47.9 107.0 13.2 2.9 15.7 %
1980 685080 88329 12189 376276 64.4 584562 488.1 202.4 21.3 222.8 12.9 2.0 14.7 %
1981 909270 97684 68771 377124 50.8 742815 513.5 313.4 12.5 127.1 10.7 8.5 18.3 %
1982 939330 81132 44058 294834 36.2 814140 652.8 637.3 4.8 54.6 8.6 5.1 13.3 %
1983 1574460 99328 99372 528185 38.4 1375760 1199.8 564.8 16.6 393.2 6.3 6.7 12.6 %
1984 1231110 88579 71305 496879 46.4 1071226 1111.2 1206.0 11.2 433.4 7.2 6.2 13.0 %
1985 727560 89303 41160 481669 80.7 597097 406.3 206.8 15.9 229.8 12.3 6.4 17.9 %
1986 748440 117770 105155 352122 67.0 525515 419.6 470.8 17.0 158.8 15.7 16.7 29.8 %
1987 587520 64732 93340 271974 63.3 429448 369.7 340.9 44.3 265.4 11.0 17.9 26.9 %
1988 647640 77119 52906 294157 56.8 517555 686.0 194.8 24.0 319.1 11.9 9.3 20.1 %
1989 979440 72996 60059 353819 41.8 846385 1195.3 708.6 61.6 137.0 7.5 6.6 13.6 %
1990 816480 57642 37831 363825 50.5 721007 940.2 432.9 43.0 251.4 7.1 5.0 11.7 %
1991 1195920 70479 85494 523153 50.3 1039947 580.4 234.3 49.4 156.7 5.9 7.6 13.0 %
1992 1628039 50039 120146 721764 49.5 1457854 776.0 389.0 97.4 161.9 3.1 7.6 10.5 %
1993 749227 32358 64855 340431 52.2 652014 473.3 287.3 79.6 129.1 4.3 9.0 13.0 %
1994 325558 20000   180807                  

 

TABLE 2. Adult shad passage at the three lowest Connecticut River mainstem fishways. 1966-1990. Percent efficiency (% Eff.) relative to the immediate downstream facility is also expressed.
Year Pop. Esta Holyoke Lift Turners Falls Gatehouse Vernon Ladder
No.b % Eff No.c % Eff. No. % Eff.
1966 535000 16000 3.0        
1967 742000 19000 2.6        
1968 940000 25000 2.7        
1969 1185000 45000 3.8        
1970 1264000 66000 5.2        
1971 1188000 53000 4.5        
1972 477000 26000 5.5        
1973 421000 25000 5.9        
1974 914000 53000 5.8        
1975 847000 114000 13.5        
1976 1040000 347000 33.4        
1977 386000 203000 52.6        
1978 623000 145000 23.3        
1979 557000 256000 41.4        
1980 745000 376000 50.5 300 < 0.1    
1981 957000 380000 39.7 200 < 0.1 97 48.5
1982 1042000 290000 27.8 10 < 0.1 9 81.8
1983 1634000 530000 32.4 12710d 2.4 2597e 20.4
1984 1329000 490000 36.9 4330f 0.9 335g 7.7
1985 795000 480000 60.4 3860 0.8 833 21.6
1986 795000 350000 44.0 17860 5.1 982 5.5
1987 481000 280000 58.2 18960 6.8 3459 18.2
1988 647000 290000 54.8 15790 5.4 1370 8.7
1989 796000 350000 44.0 9510 2.7 2953h 31.1
1990 655000 360000 55.0 27910 7.8 10894 39.0

a Population estimates derived from Holyoke Lift rate numbers as described in Crecco and Savoy (1985).

b Passage counts rounded to nearest 10,000th fish.

c Passage counts rounded to nearest 10th fish.

d The Ice Harbor style ladder at Cabot Station (Turners Falls) is structurally modified to improve flow patterns for increased shad passage during the 1983 run.

e Flow through the Ice Harbor style ladder at Vernon Station is increased in an attempt to increase shad passage.

f Structural modifications similar to those made at Cabot Station are undertaken at the spillway ladder (Turners Falls) in advance of the 1984 shad run.

g The first structural changes are made to the Ice Harbor style ladder at Vernon.

h Structural modifications similar to those made at Cabot Station are undertaken at the Vernon ladder.

 

TABLE 3. Downstream passage of American shad at the Holyoke and Turners Falls Dams on the Connecticut River. 1980-1990.
Year Holyoke Dame Turners Falls3
Boatlock Station1 Bascule Gate2
1980 142,190    
1981 31,313    
1982 3,093    
1983 120,096   15,066
1984 58,370   3,394
1985 123,040   15,167
1986 50,589   18,279
1987 38,686 open-no counts 18,880
1988 22,263 119,540 11,488
1989 3,300 56,000 no counts made
bypass operated
1990 52,534 76,116 no counts made
bypass operated

1 Boatlock Station bypass estimates.

2 Counts are estimates based on extrapolated subsamples.

3 Counts made at Cabot Station log sluice.

 

TABLE 4. Expanded effort and harvest data for shore and boat anglers on the Connecticut River
between the Enfield Dam and the Wilson State Boat Launch, 1986-1990.
Shore Anglers
Year Total Hours Total Anglers Average Angling Day Catch per Hour Total Shad Caught
1986 9054 6707 1.35 0.49 2806
1987 7039 4662 1.51 0.41 2876
1988 8544 4910 1.74 0.28 2371
1989 6518 4404 1.48 0.54 3513
1990 7054 5187 1.36 0.60 4209
Boat Anglers
Year Total Hours Total Anglers Average Angling Day Catch per Hour Total Shad Caught
1986 24392 1477 4.13 0.38 8962
1987 11294 1412 4.00 0.44 4968
1988 9251 1041 4.19 0.44 4053
1989 3990 660 3.15 0.43 1730
1990 6623 902 3.43 0.83 5478
Total Anglers
Year Total Hours Total Anglers Total Shad Caught
1986 33446 8184 11768
1987 18333 6074 7844
1988 17795 5951 6424
1989 10508 5064 5243
1990 13677 6089 9687



TABLE 5. Expanded effort and harvest data for shore and boat anglers below Holyoke Dam, between Route 116 and Route 391 bridges, 1986-1990.
Shore Anglers
Year Total Hours Total Anglers Average Angling Day Catch per Hour Total Shad Caught
1986 56960 16184 3.74 0.97 57512
1987 48227 17151 2.81 1.00 48917
1988 22948 8946 2.56 0.71 16213
1989 27995 8307 3.37 0.99 27715
1990 21393 8557 2.50 0.69 14761
Boat Anglers
Year Total Hours Total Anglers Average Angling Day Catch per Hour Total Shad Caught
1986 29637 6634 4.50 1.27 35875
1987 36045 7639 4.70 1.06 36579
1988 24023 5005 4.80 1.26 30269
1989 22967 4176 5.50 1.18 27101
1990 21243 4125 5.15 0.63 13383
Total Anglers
Year Total Hours Total Anglers Total Shad Caught
1986 86597 22818 93387
1987 84272 24790 85496
1988 46971 13951 46482
1989 50962 12483 54816
1990 42636 12682 28144




TABLE 6. Public visitation counts at fishways on the Connecticut River, 1981 to 1990
Year Holyoke Turners Falls Vernon
1981   12,568  
1982   5,162  
1983   6,997  
1984   4,984  
1985   5,012 7,878
1986   6,686 15,787
1987 12,980 6,224 6,789
1988 11,440 6,848 6,893
1989 9,781 5,699 7,543
1990 11.643 10.087 12,586
Means 11,461 7,027 10,079




TABLE 7. Public visitation counts for the Rainbow Fishway on the Farmington River, Connecticut, 1985-19901
Year Number of Group Tours Number of visitors
1985 12  
1986 19  
1987 11 (Plus 2 open house days)  
1988 11 (Plus 2 open house days) 316
1989 9 (Plus 1 open house day) 297
1990 10 (Plus 1 open house day) 266

1 Estimates of numbers of visitors are minimum numbers as the displays and viewing gallery are open to the public from the second week in April through the second week in July and in the fall from the first week in October until the second week in November.

Figure 1. Population Estimate of American shad in the Connecticut River (1966 - 1990)1
Graph showing Population Estimate of American shad in the Connecticut River (1966 - 1990)
(1966 -1975 mean = 837,581) (1976 -1990 mean = 828,426)
1Information derived from Table 1 (T. Savov. CT DEP. personal communication).

 

Figure 2. Virgin adult recruitment of American shad in the Connecticut River (1966 - 1984)1
Graph of Virgin adult recruitment of American shad in the Connecticut River (1966 - 1984)
(1966 -1975 mean = 604,339) (1976 -1984 mean = 718,506)
1Information derived from Table 1 (T. Savov. CT DEP. personal communication).

 

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