II. Goals

This section presents the Service's Annual Performance Plan for the budget year FY 2000, provides current FY 1999 projected performance, and provides past year FY 1998 accomplishments. The format for this section includes a summary narrative for each of the three GPRA Program Activities and Exhibit A following each GPRA Program Activity. Exhibit A presents the a complete picture of the performance related to each of the annual performance goals comprising the GPRA Program Activity.

Goals and indicators reflect performance expected from total budgetary resources available for the implementing the Annual Performance Plan; however, only appropriated dollars are shown in the table. Because the Service's budget and finance systems do not align directly with the strategic and annual goals; a crosswalk of budgetary resources from the current budget and finance structure to the GPRA program activities has been completed. These amounts reflect best estimates of current budgetary resources to GPRA program activities.
 
II.1 Description of GPRA Program Activity:

Sustainability of Fish & Wildlife Populations

The goals under the GPRA Program Activity - Sustainability of Fish and Wildlife Populations encompass the specific statutory mandates, international treaties and agreements delegated to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the broad conservation ethics of the nation. What began as a group of laws which sought to manage migratory game species has evolved into a broader net of conservation and protection statutes based on the realization that the continued variety and balance of plants and animals makes existence on earth possible.

The long-term goals comprising this GPRA program activity include the protection , conservation, and recovery of plants and animals of importance to the nation. The long-term goals that deals with the conservation and protection of migratory bird populations recognizes them as an international resource with special federal responsibility - Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918. Further, birds are valued and highly visible components of natural ecosystems that may be indicators of environmental quality. The long-term goal that deals with imperiled species focuses on the protection and recovery of species listed as threatened or endangered and protection of candidate species. The living resources of this Nation's inland and coastal aquatic ecosystems has been a core responsibility of the Service for more than 120 years. Within historical time, native fish communities have undergone significant and adverse changes. These changes generally tend toward reduced distributions, lowered diversity, and increased numbers of species considered rare. The long-term goal addressing these resource issues focuses the Service and its partners on the importance of maintaining stable fish population and taking actions to restore declining interjurisdictional fish populations. The remaining long term goals directly emphasis our responsibilities for protection of marine mammals and recognition that wildlife knows no geophysical boundaries; that for conservation and diversity to succeed we must extent our efforts beyond our borders.

II.2 Related Appropriated Funds to GPRA Program Activity

The following table provides a crosswalk of total appropriated funds to the GPRA Program Activity [Mission Goal]: Sustainability of Fish and Wildlife Populations for FY 1999 Enacted Appropriations and FY 2000 President's Budget Request.
 
 
 
 
($000) 
FY 1999 Operating Plan  FY 2000 Request Change  
1999/2000
FY 1999  
Enacted 
Mission Goal I Fish Wildlife Populations  FY 2000 President's 
Budget 
Mission Goal I Fish Wildlife Populations
TOTAL APPROPRIATED FUNDS  802,192 314,740 950,001 402,556 +87,816
 

II.3 Proposed Legislation:

Performance goals and accomplishment of those goals are not contingent on enactment of legislation during the fiscal year covered by this annual performance plan.

II.4 Impact of FY 2000 Budget Changes:

The annual performance plan for FY 2000 reflects essential funding to meet targeted performance directed towards conserving, protecting, enhancing, or restoring migratory birds, endangered fish, wildlife and plant species, interjurisdictional fish, and marine mammals.. The FY 2000 performance commitment assumes a funding increase of a $87,816,000, which is about a 28 percent increase over the FY 1999 enacted level attributed to this GPRA program activity.
 

FY 2000 Annual Performance Goal Summary

Annual Performance Goals 1.1 and 1.2 - Migratory Bird Conservation:

A funding increase of $4.2 million will allow the Service to improve the status of regional migratory bird populations of management concern by 2 percent over the FY 1999 condition. The performance goal anticipates significant efforts in improved monitoring of migratory bird populations where little baseline information is currently known and greater emphasis on establishing permit regulations to diminish detrimental impacts of problematic species. This goal will be accomplished through a combined effort of the Migratory Bird Management program, the National Wildlife Refuge System, and the North American Waterfowl Management Plan. The FY 2000 performance goal assumes additional resources of $2.1 million, delivered through the Migratory Bird Management program, directed to conservation and monitoring activities, such as:

The National Wildlife Refuge System provides protection for more than 700 kinds of birds. The Refuge system will make a significant contribution to the overall success of the FY 2000 performance goal. Additional resources of $2.6 million will be directed, through the refuge program, to increased monitoring for disease outbreaks on refuges to minimize further effects on waterfowl populations and the collection and disposal of 5,000 diseased birds and additional projects designed to promote conservation of the fragile and rare ecosystems in Alaska and Hawaii as part of the Department's "tundra to tropics" initiative.

Annual Performance Goal 1.2 - Imperiled Species:

The FY 2000 performance target for improving the status of imperiled species assumes an increase of $72.2 million. A significant portion of this increase, $66 million, will be directed through the Lands Legacy Initiative, to states to integrate conservation planning and habitat protection into local land use planning and decision-making. The benefits to the recovery of endangered and threatened species from the Grants to states for land acquisition portion of this initiative will occur over several years. Therefore an immediate outcome is not reflected in the FY 2000 performance; however the initiation of this program is crucial to the Service's success in meeting the long-term goal to improve the status of threatened and endangered species listed a decade or more by 40 percent.

A portion of the increased resources, an additional $6.2 million, will strengthen the effectiveness of The Endangered Species Act of 1973 and allow the Service to meet the FY 2000 performance goal of stabilizing or improving 37 percent of endangered or threatened species populations and precluding the need to list 15 species whose populations are in decline. Through the Ecological Services program, an increase of $2.1 million will directed toward:

The National Wildlife Refuge System is directing an additional $2.1 million, over the 1999 enacted level, to improve baseline surveys on endangered species and other species in decline on refuges. Many of American's native fish populations, including salmon, trout and shad, are listed as endangered, threatened or in decline. Approximately 53 percent of resources for the fisheries hatchery and maintenance program supports the restoration of depleted inland fisheries populations. An increase of $1 million is included in the FY 2000 budget request for fisheries work in support of this annual performance goal. In addition, hatchery production will be redirected to help repopulate restored habitat; and meeting the conservation and recovery needs of the Apache trout, Gila trout, and other native fish species that are unique to the mountain and desert regions of Arizona and New Mexico. The FY 2000 performance goal also anticipates increased resources to support a cooperative effort with the Service, the State of Maine and the National Marine Fisheries Service on the restoration of Atlantic Salmon populations in order to preclude the need to list the species.

Annual Performance Goal 1.3 - Interjurisdictional Fish:

The FY 2000 annual performance goal allows for the maintenance of currently stable interjurisdictional fish populations and the restoration of 1 percent of the depressed populations to self-sustaining or harvestable levels. Although the Service is in the process of establishing performance measures baselines for this goal; considerable populations data indicates that many native fish populations are declining due to habitat degradation, inadequate fish passage that would allow for successful reproduction, overfishing and introduction of nonindigenous species.

Thousands of nonindigenous species, such as zebra mussels, have been introduced in the United States, with many having significant nuisances that imperil native species and threaten our natural resources and the economies that depend on them. An increase of $2.5 million, over the FY 1999 enacted level, to prevent the spread of nonindigenous species. To meet our FY 2000 performance target, the Service will redirect base resources of $800,000 and request additional funds of $900,000 to improve fish passage by removing culverts, repairing fishways and improving instream and riparian habitats. These efforts will improve fish passage to spawning areas and replenish imperiled native fish, such as redband trout, leopard darter, American shad and sturgeon, and stripped bass.

Annual Performance Goal 1.4 - Marine Mammals:

Marine mammal populations, which the Service has jurisdiction, will be maintained at sustainable population levels or protected under conservation agreements. An increase of $300,000 will ensure that 100 percent of marine mammal populations, over which the Service has jurisdiction, will benefit from improved conservation efforts. The increase will focus on: conducting sea otter surveys to address significant declines in the Aleutian Island populations and Pacific walrus population studies.

Annual Performance Goal - Species of International Concern:

The FY 2000 Performance goal will be accomplished through the initiation of 55 conservation projects addressing 17 percent of transborder species and conservation efforts for 15 priority species that would benefit from improved status.
 
Additional resources of $4.4 million will be necessary to fulfill the FY 2000 performance goal. A significant portion of the requested increase will be directed through the International Affairs program to build new CITES partnerships for protecting endangered species, involving U.S. state and tribal governments in CITES activities, and streamlining the permits process to support international trade while ensuring the sustained conservation of trust species at home and abroad. FY 2000 projects will be directed toward protections of neo-tropical birds that migrate across our southern borders; conservation of winter habitat for Monarch butterflies in Mexico; expanding support to Russia for wildlife and habitat conservation projects benefiting migratory marine mammals, waterfowl, and seabirds; supporting interagency projects to improve the environment, natural resources, and public health while fostering sustainable development in the U.S./Mexico border area

The Law Enforcement program will strengthen efforts, through an increase of $700,000, to uncover illegal shipments of species parts smuggled into the country, control and investigate illegal activities involving federally-protected species, including the inspection of wildlife shipments at ports of entry and training conservation law enforcement officers from Native American tribes, U.S. territories, and other nations.

II.5 EXHIBIT A
GPRA PROGRAM ACTIVITY 
FY 1999 
Operating Plan 
BA ($000)
FY 2000 
Proposed 
BA($000)
Sustainability of Fish and Wildlife Populations
$314,740
$402,556
 
Long-term Goal: Migratory Birds 
1.1 Through 2003, 20 percent of regional migratory bird populations demonstrate improvements in their population status because of management actions that have either increased their numbers or, in some cases, reduced the number of conflicts due to overabundance. 
 
FY 2000 Annual Performance Goal: 
1.1.1 By September 30, 2000, an increase of 2 percent of regional migratory bird populations of management concern (which adequate population information is available) demonstrate improvements in their populations status because of management actions that have either increased their numbers or, in some cases, reduced the number of conflicts due to overabundance. 
Performance Measures FY  
1997  
Actual 
FY 1998
FY 1999 
Operating Plan 
FY 2000 
Proposed
Plan 
Actual 
1. % increase in regional migratory bird populations of management concern with improved status ---- [1 pop.]
.8%
2% 
[5 populations]
2% 
[5 populations]
Baseline for Performance Measure Above:
# regional migratory bird populations of management concern which have adequate population information is available through existing surveys.  250 250 250 250 250
Workload and Other Performance Statistics 
1. # management actions initiated for species of management concern. 
0
5 5 10 10
Refuges & Wildlife/Refuge O&M
2. # migratory bird surveys & censuses 5,200 5,375 3,960 4,160 4,338
3. # migratory bird studies & investigations 660 685 463 500 524
 
FY 2000 Annual Performance Plan
1.1.2 By September 30, 2000, an additional 3 percent of regional migratory bird populations that are of management concern will have baseline information available for establishing reliable population levels, and monitoring programs will be initiated or continued for those species. 
Performance Measures FY  
1997 
Actual
FY 1998
FY 1999 
Operating Level 
FY 2000 
Proposed
Plan 
Actual 
1. % increase in baseline monitoring programs initiated for regional migratory bird populations of management concerns. 0 0 0 4% 3%
2. # regional migratory bird populations of management concern. 400 400 400 400 400
3. % regional migratory bird populations of management concern with reliable baseline information & ongoing monitoring program . 53% 
[250]
53% 
[210]
53% 55% 
[218]
56% 
[224]
 
Operational Processes, Technology, Financial and Human Resources Necessary to Achieve Each Performance Goal within the GPRA Program Activity:

Goal (s) Purpose:

A key objective of the two annual goals, contributing to the success of long-term goal, is to improve populations status for migratory birds whose populations evidence decline or other problems, including over abundance. These annual goals can be accomplished by implementing appropriate species and habitat conservation and management actions early enough to avoid other social, economic or biological problems while improving populations monitoring activities for which reliable information on species status in not available.

The Service is responsible for the management of game and nongame birds, including 58 species that may be legally hunted as game birds and 778 nongame species, all of which are protected under the Migratory Bird Treaty Act of 1918.

Resource Condition:

Many migratory bird populations are currently at-risk due to a variety of factors that have caused significant declines in numbers, while other populations have outstripped the ability of key landscapes to support the burden of excessive population growth. There have been dramatic declines of one-fifth of all migratory bird species during the past 30 years. Of the 400 regional migratory bird populations of management concern, only 250 of those populations have reliable baseline information and on-going monitoring programs. Further, the Service recognizes 124 species as "Nongame Birds of Management Concern", meaning without immediate attention, these species will be future candidates for listing under the ESA. Some populations, such as Mid-continent snow geese, are increasing faster than their habitats can support them. Over abundance of populations can result in massive destruction of ecosystems and significant economic losses on agricultural lands.

FY 2000 Performance - Goal Achievement:

This goal will be achieved through three principal strategies: (1) migratory bird monitoring activities will be increased by establishing survey projects for species of concern for which little baseline population information currently exits. These species include snow geese, shorebirds, and certain land birds. (2) greater emphasis will be placed on implementation of newly developed conservation plans for migratory birds -- populations potentially affected by management actions will be monitored to evaluate population-level responses. (3) Permit regulations will be established that will help diminish the detrimental impact of several problematic species.

Benefits Realized from Goal Achievement:

Service programs directly involved with migratory bird management efforts include the North American Waterfowl Management Plan, the Refuge System, and the Migratory Bird Management program. The Service's FY 2000 budget requests an additional $ 4.2 million above the FY 1999 enacted level; achieving the targeted level of performance is dependent on resources requested in the FY 2000 budget for Migratory Bird Management-Conservation and Monitoring, and Refuge Operations - Protect Wildlife.
 
 
GPRA PROGRAM ACTIVITY  FY 1999 
Operating Plan  
BA ($000) 
FY 2000 
Proposed  
BA ($000)
Sustainability of Fish and Wildlife Populations $314,740 $402,556
 
Long-term Goal: Imperiled Species: 
1.2 Through 2003, 40 percent or 315 of endangered and threatened species populations listed a decade or more are stabilized or improved and 60 species in decline are precluded from the need for listing under the Endangered Species Act
 
FY 2000 Annual Performance Goal: 
1.2.1 By September 30, 2000, 37 percent or 197 of endangered and threatened species populations listed a decade or more are stabilized or improved and 15 species in decline are precluded from the need for listing under the Endangered Species Act. 
Performance Measures FY 1997 
Actual 
FY 1998
FY 1999 
Operating Plan
FY 2000 
Proposed
Plan 
Actual 
1. % listed species populations listed a decade or more improved/stabilized. 
[Cumulative performance data; adjusted base- line annually for species listed 10+ years ]
--- --- --- 12.6%  
[63 t&e species populations baseline 499]
37%  
[197 t&e species populations; baseline 532]
2. # species approved for removal from candidate or proposed status.  11 7 17 10 15
3. # species approved for removal from candidate or proposed status as a result of conservation agreements precluding the need to list.  7 5 5 8 10
4. # species included in proposed rules to delist/downlist published in the Fed. Register. 0 7 1 12 10
5. # species included in final rules to delist or downlist.  0 0 0 3 15
6. # total acres protected, restored or enhanced under HCPs. --- 2,000,000 2,000,000 2,500,000 3,000,000
7. # listed, unlisted, candidate species covered by those HCPs.  --- 200 200 250 300
Workload and Other Performance Statistics
Fisheries/Hatchery O&M/LSRCP
1. # cooperative requests to initiate new fisheries propagation programs 7 13 13 21 27
2. # recovery plans requiring fisheries captive propagation programs. 
42
47
42
53
59
3. # monitoring requirements for propagation programs 24 31 46 38 45
Refuges & Wildlife/Refuge O&M
1. # surveys & census 3,500 3,581 1,164 1,265 1,405
2. # studies & investigations 640 660 270 275 295
3. # listed animals and plants reintroduced 485 493 62,865 63,000 63,300
 
Operational Processes, Technology, Financial and Human Resources Necessary to Achieve Each Performance Goal within the GPRA Program Activity:

The Service, in the Department of the Interior, and the National Marine Fisheries Service, in the Department of Commerce, share responsibility for administration of the Endangered Species Act. Generally, the National Marine Fisheries deals with those species occurring in marine environments and anadromous fish, while the Service is responsible for terrestrial and freshwater species and migratory birds. Additionally, the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, in the Department of Agriculture, oversees importation and exportation of listed terrestrial plants.

Goal Purpose:

Protecting endangered and threatened species and restoring them to a secure status in the wild is the primary goal of the endangered species program of the Service. The responsibilities and strategies of the endangered species program include:

Status of the Threatened and Endangered Species and Candidate Species:

As of September 30, 1998, there were 85 species proposed for listing and 1,154 species listed as threatened or endangered. The Service anticipates adding 100 species to the list in FY 1999. The Service anticipates publishing the Annual Notice of Review of all candidate species for listing in the Federal Register in 1999 and anticipates having 100 - 200 candidate species.
 
FY 2000 Performance - Goal Achievement:

The Service FY 2000 performance target assumes additional budgetary resources of $72.2 million over the FY 1999 enacted level, necessary to meet the goal of stabilizing or improving 37% or 197 endangered or threatened species populations listed a decade or more and precluding the need to list 15 species whose populations are in decline.

A significant portion of this increase, $66 million, will be directed through the Lands Legacy Initiative, to grants to states to integrate conservation planning and habitat protection into local land use planning and decision-making. The benefits to the recovery of endangered and threatened species from the Grants to states for land acquisition portion of this initiative will occur over several years.

Additional resources of $6.2 million will strengthen the effectiveness of the Endangered Species Act. Specifically, increased resources will permit an acceleration of consultation and recovery activities. by providing additional professional staff to assist landowners by issuing accurate and timely biological opinions, addressing the increased demand for section 7 programmatic consultations, and developing or monitoring the growing number of habitat conservation plans and section 10 Safe Harbor agreements. The FY 2000 requirements for recovery will increase as a result of the additional 47 species listed in FY1998. Recovery Plans must be completed for these species within 2 years of listing. The Service will delist species once recovery has been achieved and downlist species from endangered to threatened when appropriate.
 

FY 2000 Strategies

Candidate Conservation -- During FY 2000, the Service anticipates the removal of ten candidates as a result of conservation agreements thus precluding the need to list the species under the ESA. The Service will expand the use of candidate conservation agreements to protect at-risk species in FY 2000. Additional incentives [Candidate Conservation Agreements Assurances Policy] are being afforded non-federal landowners by assuring that no additional conservation measures will be required should the candidate species, under an approved agreement, become listed in the future. Increased resources of $1.4 million in FY 2000 will allow the Service to finalize an additional 50 for Candidate Conservation Agreements. Service will focus efforts on a collaborative partnership conservation effort to benefit High Plains species.

Listing -- Legal challenges continue to significantly constrain the Service's ability focus its efforts and resources toward those species that are most biologically in need of protection under the ESA. As of December 31, 1998, there were 16 active lawsuits, court orders, and settlements under section 4 of ESA and 25 notices of Intent to sue-- involving 151 species. During FY 2000, the Service will continue to evaluate species for listing, and expects to propose 100 species for listing, process petition findings for 30 species and remove 20 species from candidacy. Increased efforts to address listing workload in the Southwest due in part to the court-ordered designation of critical habitat for an increasing number of species, the completion of 22 listing actions, and six active lawsuits, court orders, and settlements concerning listing actions is planned for FY 2000. These improvements in performance anticipates additional funding of $1.6 million in FY 2000.

Consultation and Habitat Conservation Planning -- Efforts to improve and reform the implementation of the Endangered Species Act have focused, to a great degree, on federal consultations and habitat conservation planning.

Consultation plays a critical role in the Service's ability to protect and recover threatened and endangered species. Through section 7, the Service works with federal partners to minimize the adverse impacts of federal actions on listed, proposed and candidate species and designated critical habitat. Additionally, the Service uses section 10 and the Habitat Conservation Planning process to allow non-federal activities to proceed while promoting conservation of imperiled species and their habitats. Potential impacts to newly listed species are addressed via new or reinitiated section 7 consultations and new HCPs; existing HCPs may be modified to include newly listed species if they were not already covered. Often, the section 7 and 10 processes facilitate implementation of recovery actions, thus furthering the long-term conservation prospects of listed species. Thousands of federal actions are reviewed each year by the Service, which constitutes an immense workload due to case-specific analysis and interpersonal communication that is required.

During FY 2000, the Service will continue to facilitate the issuance of accurate and timely biological opinions to other federal agencies and permit reviews to nonfederal applicants. An additional $ 9.5 million will allow the Service to respond to an anticipated 2000 programmatic consultations with federal agencies, and be involved in over 500 new and ongoing Habitat Conservation Plan (HCP) consultations. Approximately 300 species will benefit from the restoration, enhancement or protection of over 3.0 million acres covered in Habitat Conservation Plans through FY 2000.

The FY 2000 performance anticipates increased technical assistance with Indian tribes in concert with Secretarial Order 3206. Assistance could, include greater coordination on review of activities which could affect tribal trust resources, assistance in the development of tribal resource conservation and management plans, and cooperative identification of appropriate management measures to address concerns for listed, proposed and candidate species and their habitats.

Grants to States -- Grants to States funded through the Cooperative Endangered Species Fund provides financial assistance to states and territories to participate in conservation and recovery projects for candidate, proposed and listed species. In addition, habitat conservation planning land acquisition funds are available to local government and other non-federal entities to establish HCPs that protect species while allowing development to continue. The long-term performance target for the Service will be realized through the benefits realized from the grants to states and HCP land acquisition programs. The FY 2000 Land Legacy Initiative requests $66 million to allow states to aggressively integrate conservation planning and habitat protection into local land use planning and decision-making. The success of this initiative will be long-term -- realizing thousands of acres of private lands conserved through voluntary Safe Harbor Agreements -- resulting in the expedited delisting of many endangered species.

Recovery -- Recovery planning provides a blueprint for coordinated private, federal tribal and state implementation of recovery actions. These actions may include steps to stabilize listed species in declining populations, increase the numbers and distribution of listed species in accordance with recovery objectives and remove threats to listed species so that they can be removed form the list. The Service has two primary responsibilities in species recovery -- recovery planning and recovery implementation. FY 2000 performance will rely on a redirection of currently available resources of $10.7 million essential to the development of recovery outlines and plans for increasing number of listed species, the development and implementation of high priority recovery actions and additional Safe Harbor Agreements. The number of species covered by final recovery plans is expected to increase by 274 by the close of FY 2000. In addition, the Service will draft and finalize recovery plans for 100 species added to the list in FY 1999.

Many of America's native fish populations, including salmon, trout and shad, are listed as endangered, threatened or in decline. In FY 2000, increased efforts in restoration and recovery of native fishes, including endangered shortnose sturgeon, greenback cutthroat trout and Gila trout, are anticipated and reflected in the performance target for FY 1999. These efforts are also intended to reverse declines in native fish populations and thereby preclude additional listing actions under the ESA. The Service will focus on efforts to improve fish passage in the upper reaches of many streams and waterways now blocked by dams or other impediments to enhance natural fish spawning habitat and improve opportunities for reproduction. The Service continues to work cooperatively with the State of Maine and the National Marine Fisheries Service on the restoration of Atlantic Salmon populations in order to preclude the need to list the species.

Landowner Incentive Program -- The ability to recover or improve the status of threatened or endangered species also relies on the willingness of private landowners to improve or enhance habitat for these species. FY 2000 performance assumes the continuation of a $5 million Safe Harbor Grant program - providing landowners with a financial incentive to conserve important habitat for endangered species.

Benefits Realized from Goal Achievement:

Implementation of this goal will provide two specific benefits both to the resource and the public.

 
GPRA PROGRAM ACTIVITY 
FY 1999 
Operating Plan 
BA ($000)
FY 2000 
Proposed 
BA ($000)
Sustainability of Fish and Wildlife Populations  $314,740 $402,556
 
Long-term Goal: Interjurisdictional Fish 
1.3 Through 2003, 100 percent of stable interjurisdictional fish populations remain at or above current levels and 3% of depressed populations are restored to self-sustaining or, where appropriate, harvestable levels. 
 
FY 2000 Annual Performance Goal: 
1.3.1 By September 30, 2000, 100 percent of stable interjurisdictional fish populations remain at or above current levels, and 1% of depressed populations are restored to self-sustaining or, where appropriate, harvestable levels. 
Performance Measures FY 1997  
Actual 
FY 1998
FY 1999 
Operating Plan 
FY 2000 
Proposed
Plan 
Actual 
1. develop status & trends baseline for interjurisdictional (IJ) fish populations by 9/30/99 In Process  In Process    Baseline established  N/A
2. # stable interjurisdictional fish populations          
3. % depressed populations are restored to self-          
1/ Baseline still being established -- Target to be provided in FY 2000 Operating Plan. 
Workload and Other Performance Statistics 
Fisheries/Hatchery O&M/LSRCF
1. Cooperative requests to initiate propagation 11 14 13 18 24
2. Management plans requiring captive fish 45 52 67 60 69 
3. Monitoring requirements for propagation
34
41 47 49 59
Fisheries/Fish & Wildlife Management
4. # approved management plans for IJ fish
144
170 175 183 192
5. # surveys & investigations on IJ fish populations 183 225 201 230 235
Refuges & Wildlife/Refuge O&M
4. # surveys & census IJ fish populations 220 235 155 160 179
5. # studies & investigations IJ fish populations 100 119 45 46 50
6. Alaskan IJ fish runs  396 396 396 396 396
 
Operational Processes, Technology, Financial and Human Resources Necessary to Achieve Each Performance Goal within the GPRA Program Activity:

Goal Purpose:

Protecting the living resources of the Nation's inland and coastal aquatic ecosystems has been a core responsibility of the Service for more than 120 years. This goal focuses the attention of the Service and its partners on the importance of maintaining currently stable fish populations; while taking actions to restore declining interjurisdictional fish populations.

Resource Condition:

Many native fish populations are declining, or are at historic low levels, due to habitat degradation, inadequate fish passage, overfishing, introductions of nonindigenous species, poor land management practices or urbanization.
As a consequence of resource perturbations, many interjurisdictional fishery populations have been decimated. Populations of sturgeon, river herring, shad and salmon have plummeted along the Atlantic Coast. Atlantic salmon populations are currently less than 1% of historic levels. Before declining Atlantic striped bass populations were restored, depressed fisheries cost an estimated 7,500 jobs and $200 million between 1974 and 1980. On the West Coast, 214 salmon and steelhead stocks are at risk of extinction and over 100 salmon and steelhead stocks have already been extirpated from once productive waters. The Pacific salmon in Washington, Oregon, and California, valued at $200 million in 1980, dropped to only $120 million in 1990, and is well below that today. Further, interjurisdictional fish species support critical recreational and commercial fisheries. In 1996, 35 million anglers spent $15.4 billion on fishing trips, $19.2 billion on equipment and $3.8 billion on licenses, stamps, tags and other items. Interjurisdictional fish support a vast commercial fishery .

FY 2000 Performance - Goal Achievement:

The Service will incorporate a number of strategies to achieve the FY 2000 annual goal; including increased emphasis and resources directed toward:

Status and trends information is critical to the maintenance of stable populations and the conservation of declining aquatic species. We have established a target date of September 1999 for completion of the baseline data for interjurisdictional fish populations.
 
Resource Requirements:
 
Accomplishment of the FY 2000 performance assumes an increased emphasis and resources of
$ 2.4 million, over the FY 1999 enacted level, in restoration and recovery of interjurisdictional fishes. To meet our FY 2000 performance, the Service will redirect base resources of $800,000 to improve fish passage --repairing fishways and improving instream and riparian habitats.
 
Based on previous workload statistics, the Service is anticipating an increase of 33% in propagation programs in FY 2000, as well as an 15% increase in management plans requiring captive fishery propagation. The National Fish Hatchery System plays a critical role in stabilizing and restoring depressed populations of interjurisdictional fish species, particularly along the coasts of the nation, in its major rivers and in the Great Lakes. Thirty-five of the Service's 66 hatcheries are involved in restoration programs, producing more than 90 million fish annually, at a cost of about $15 million.
 
In FY 2000, where stocks are identified as declining, Service fisheries professionals will determine limiting factors in and effort to reverse the decline of the populations. Comprehensive populations assessment activities will be conducted on imperiled stocks and partners will be enjoined to develop appropriate management plans for restoration of the population.
 
Benefits Derived:
 
Proper management of interjurisdictional fisheries populations will avoid expensive, disruptive, and controversial restoration/recovery efforts and thus is broadly supported by the public. Successful management and restoration of interjurisdictional fisheries offers immense biological, social, and economic benefits to the Nation, including expanded commercial, recreational, and subsistence fishing opportunities; more fish for public consumption; avoidance of threatened and endangered species listings; healthy aquatic ecosystems; support of partners; education and outreach opportunities; improved balance of trade; and preservation of Native American cultures. On Service lands, goal achievement allows the Service to lead by example in the conservation of interjurisdictional fisheries resources. It can also provide a more positive image of the Service and Department with increased fishing and harvest opportunities.
 
 
GPRA PROGRAM ACTIVITY 
FY 1999 
Operating Plan 
BA ($000)
FY 2000 
Proposed 
BA ($000)
Sustainability of Fish and Wildlife Populations $314,740 $402,556
 
Long-term Goal: Marine Mammals 
1.4 Through 2003, 100 percent of marine mammal populations, over which the Service has jurisdiction, will be at sustainable population levels or protected under conservation agreements. 
 
FY 2000 Annual Performance Goal: 
1.4.1 Through September 30, 2000, 100 percent of marine mammal populations over which the Service has jurisdiction will be at sustainable population levels or protected under conservation agreements. 
Performance Measures FY  
1997  
Actual 
FY 1998
FY 1999 
Operating Plan 
FY 2000 
Proposed
Plan 
Actual 
1. % marine mammal populations at sustainable levels or protected under conservation agreements. 
Marine Mammal Populations addressed: 
Polar Bear-Southern Beaufort Sea 
Polar Bear -Chukchi/Bering Seas 
Pacific Walrus 
Northern Sea Otter - 
   southeast Alaska 
   southcentral Alaska 
   southwest Alaska 
   Washington State 
100 100 100 100 100
 
Operational Processes, Technology, Financial and Human Resources Necessary to Achieve Each Performance Goal within the GPRA Program Activity:
 
Goal Purpose:
 
The Service's manages the Northern sea otter in Alaska and Washington State, polar bear and Pacific walrus in Alaska, and supports efforts to recover the listed Souther sea otter in California and Wet Indian manatee in Florida and Puerto Rico. This annual performance goal focuses the Service attention specifically on those non-listed marine mammals. Those marine mammals that are listed as threatened or endangered species are included in annual performance goal 1.2.1.
 
Resource Condition: FY 2000 Performance - Goal Achievement:
 
The Service's role includes preparing and reviewing species management plans; developing, reviewing, and revising stock assessment reports in coordination with Alaskan Native organizations; implementing the 1973 international Agreement on the Conservation of Polar Bears; developing cooperative management agreements with Alaska Native organizations to conserve marine mammals and provide co-management of subsistence use by Alaska Natives; developing and implementing international agreements (e.g., with Russia) to govern the conservation and management of shared walrus and polar bear populations; developing and implementing marine mammal incidental take regulations for activities other than commercial fishing (e.g., oil and gas operations); conducting harvest monitoring projects for polar bears and walrus taken by Alaskan Natives; and implementing a Marking, Tagging, and Reporting Program for all polar bears, walrus, and sea otters harvested by Alaskan Natives. Program activities such as these directly support Mission Goal 1.4.1.
 
Resource Requirements:
 
To assist the Service in fulfilling its requirements under the MMPA to maintain marine mammals at optimum sustainable population (OSP) levels, the FY 2000 performance goal assumes additional resources of $300,000 to conduct a high priority marine mammal surveys in the Bering Sea. A sea otter population survey will be implemented in the Aleutian Islands where these animals are disappearing in unprecedented numbers. A decline in the sea otter population in the Aleutian Islands may be occurring as evidenced in partial survey data since 1992 showing a catastrophic, 65% drop in populations at three key islands. Additional resources will allow for population studies of Pacific walrus that occur through the U.S. and Russian waters of the Bering Sea. For Pacific walrus, the most recent population estimate occurred in 1990. The Service is planning to develop a population indices (cost effective alternative to broad population surveys) based on the number of male walrus that use terrestrial haulouts in Bristol Bay.
 
Benefits Derived:
 
Accurate data on population size will enable the Service to maintain marine mammal populations at optimum sustainable population levels, provide for continued subsistence uses, and initiate conservation actions to rebuild populations that are depressed.
 
GPRA PROGRAM ACTIVITY 
FY 1999 
Operating Plan 
BA ($000)
FY 2000 
Proposed 
BA ($000)
Sustainability of Fish and Wildlife Populations $314,740 $402,556
 
Long-term Goal: Species of International Concern 
1.5 Through 2003, 40 percent of transborder species of international concern over which the Service has jurisdiction will have improved conservation status or be included under a conservation project; and conservation projects for 40 additional priority species of international concern will be initiated. . 
 
FY 2000 Annual Performance Goal: 
1.5.1 By September 30, 2000, 20 percent of transborder species of international concern, over which the Service has jurisdiction, will benefit from improved conservation efforts.
Performance Measures FY 1997  
Actual 
FY 1998
FY 1999 
Operating Plan 
FY 2000 
Proposed
Plan 
Actual 
1. % of transborder international species benefitting from improved conservation efforts 16% 17% 17% 19% 20%
Workload and Other Performance Statistics 
1. # of conservation projects initiated for international and transborder species 55 55 60 65 75
 
FY 2000 Annual Performance Goal: 
1.5.2 By September 30, 2000, 30 priority species of international concern will benefit from improved conservation efforts.
Performance Measures FY 1997  
Actual 
FY 1998
FY 1999 
Operating Plan 
FY 2000 
Proposed
Plan 
Actual 
1. # of priority international species benefitting from improved conservation efforts  15 15 15 22 30
2. Establish a baseline for priority international species.  --- --- --- Establish 
Baseline 
Baseline Established
 
Operational Processes, Technology, Financial and Human Resources Necessary to Achieve Each Performance Goal within the GPRA Program Activity:
 
Goals Purpose:
 
The primary objective of these annual goals is to improve the status of transborder species through cooperative conservation strategies. Conservation of wildlife recognizes the fact that geophysical boundaries have no meaning for wildlife and that for conservation to succeed it must go beyond man-made borders.
 
Resource Condition:
 
The current status of transborder species and priority species of international concern ranges from stable to highly endangered or nearing extinction. The international programs attempt to conserve remaining populations of endangered species and prevent stable populations from declining. However, efforts to conserve these species effectively vary due to species distribution, population growth, and related threats, as well as the level of cooperation from partner countries. For example, the Service and its partners have joined forces in successful efforts to protect priority species of international importance such as the Swainsons' Hawk, West Indies Whistling Duck, polar bears, and elephants. However, concentrated Service efforts with partners have helped stabilize some rhino populations, while other populations of tigers and rhinos still experience decline. This demonstrates that the Service's best efforts cannot consistently guarantee that we will be able to halt declines in species facing severe conservation pressures in other countries.
 
FY 2000 Performance - Goal Achievement:
 
The Service International Affairs program directs the development and implementation of international policies, treaties, agreements, and conventions for the conservation of wildlife, and provides U.S. leadership and assistance to other countries for wildlife conservation, wildlife reserve management, and protection of global biodiversity. It directly promotes international conservation through technical assistance, training and funding for sustainable conservation projects, which equip foreign partners with the tools critical for effective conservation management.
 
The International Affairs program has spent more than 20 years training nature reserve managers, supporting projects that protect often highly endangered species, and assisting rural communities to develop economic alternatives with minimum impact on local wildlife. The Service coordinates its international efforts with other Service partners, federal and state land and resource management agencies, the Department of State, the Agency for International Development, Service counterpart agencies in other countries, and numerous private organizations. This coordination ensures that the best scientific data is brought to bear on conservation issues and that the best possible use is made of available funds. Projects include neotropical migratory bird conservation; elephant, rhinoceros and tiger conservation efforts implemented by range countries using anti-poaching measures and other conservation strategies; a small grants program and other collaboration with Russia; efforts to assist Monarch butterflies, which migrate from breeding areas in the U.S. and Canada to wintering grounds in central Mexico before returning north; and others.
 
In FY 1998, the International Programs initiated 55 conservation projects addressing 17 percent of transborder species, and conservation efforts for 15 priority species that would benefit from improved conservation status. Achievement of the FY 2000 performance goal assumes additional resources of $4.4 million funded through the Resource Management Account - International Affairs and the Multi-species Conservation Fund, and the Service's Law Enforcement program. Primary areas of focus are as follows (amounts are in comparison to FY 1999 enacted levels): These activities will enable the Service to increase to 20 percent the number of transborder species benefitting from improved conservation efforts, and increase to 30 the number of priority species benefitting from improved conservation efforts in FY 2000.

For Further Information, Contact Al Zara at: al_zara@fws.gov

Table of Contents:FY 2000 Annual Performance Plan
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