Nevada Fish & Wildlife Office
Pacific Southwest Region

Bull Trout - Jarbidge River Population
(Salvelinus confluentus)

 
Bull Trout
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Salmoniformes
Family: Salmonidae
Genus: Salvelinus
Species: confluentus
Length: Resident form - 12 inches (maximum); Migratory form – 24+ inches
Lifespan: 12+ years
Feed: Macrozooplankton, terrestrial and aquatic insects, fish
Habitat: Cold, clear tributary streams and rivers (Populations elsewhere also inhabit lakes, reservoirs, and coastal zones)
 

Official Status:

Listed as endangered on August 10, 1998; reclassified as threatened on April 8, 1999.
 

Life History:

Bull trout usually mature between 4-7 years of age. An individual may spawn annually or every other year. Bull trout typically spawn from August through November during periods of decreasing water temperatures. Spawning habitat consists of low-gradient stream reaches with loose, clean gravel. Redds are often constructed in spring-fed areas with cold ground water. Eggs incubate from 100 to 145 days depending on the water temperature. Fry may remain in the gravel after hatching for an additional 60-100 days, normally emerging from early April through May.
 

Distribution and Habitat:

 

Bull trout in the Jarbidge River population occur in the mainstem Jarbidge River in Idaho and Nevada, as well as headwater tributary streams in Nevada. These streams include the East and West Forks and their headwaters including tBull trout distribution maphe Cougar, Dave, Fall, Jack, Pine, and Slide Creek drainages. Bull trout also have access to seasonally-suitable habitat downstream in the Bruneau River in Idaho, but it is unknown if they currently migrate out of the Jarbidge River.

Bull trout are associated with cover in the form of large woody debris, undercut stream banks, boulders, and pools. Bull trout are primarily found in colder streams (below 59° F), but have been found in temperatures up to 64° F in Nevada. Spawning habitats and juvenile rearing areas are generally in stream reaches with water temperatures below 48° F in the fall, moderate gradient (less than 12 percent), and minimum flow rates of at least 1 cubic foot per second.

 

Threats:

  Bull trout have been negatively affected by the combined effects of a variety of factors, including habitat degradation and fragmentation, blockage of migration corridors, poor water quality, past fisheries management practices, and the introduction of nonnative species. Dams and diversion structures on the Snake and Bruneau Rivers have eliminated connectivity between the Jarbidge River and other bull trout populations for over 100 years. Warm water temperatures in portions of the Jarbidge River watershed seasonally restrict bull trout movements. Historically, mining contributed to degraded water quality conditions in the watershed. Inactive mine sites are currently being evaluated for contributions to surface water. Roads and livestock grazing contribute sediment to bull trout streams and impact riparian areas. Nonnative fish (cutthroat, rainbow, and brook trout) were stocked in the Jarbidge River watershed for approximately 40 years. Brook trout are the only remaining nonnative fish present, and although their current distribution does not overlap with bull trout, they represent a threat through potential hybridization. The Jarbidge River Bull Trout Recovery Team is developing a recovery plan to address
threats for this bull trout population.
 

Actions / Current Information:

 

09/04/2014
  • News Release - U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Announces Revised Draft Bull Trout Recovery Plan and Public Comment Period
    09/04/2014
  • Q & A - Revised Draft Recovery Plan for the Coterminous U.S. Population of Bull Trout
         
    10/18/2010
  • Federal Register for Final Critical Habitat Designation for Bull Trout (4.3 MB PDF)
         
    10/12/2010
  • News Release: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Designates Critical Habitat Releases Economic Analysis for Bull Trout
     
  • Q&A: Additional Information Final Critical Habitat Designation for Bull Trout In Idaho, Oregon, Washington, Montana and Nevada
     
  • Map: Critical Habitat for Bull Trout (Salvelinus confluentus) (2.4 MB PDF)
     
  • Pacific Region Bull Trout Page
     
  • Video: http://www.youtube.com/usfws#p/c/00CA362652FF8AB3 (external link)
         
    03/23/2010
  • Federal Register for Reopened Comment Period for Bull Trout Critical Habitat Revision (7.4 MB PDF)
         
    03/15/2010
  • News Release: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Reopens Comment Period for Proposed Bull Trout Critical Habitat Revision
         
    02/05/2010
  • News Release: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to Host Public Open House on Proposed Critical Habitat Designation for Bull Trout
         
    01/13/2010
  • Critical Habitat for Bull Trout Federal Register (7.4 MB PDF)
     
  • News Release: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Proposes Revision of Critical Habitat for Bull Trout
     
  • Additional Information on Bull Trout and the Proposed Critical Habitat Revision
     
  • Map: Proposed 2010 Critical Habitat for Bull Trout (1.8 MB PDF)
     
  • Map: Proposed Jarbidge River Basin Critical Habitat for Bull Trout
         
    04/01/2009
  • Genetic Analysis of Bull Trout in the Jarbidge River; DeHaan and Godfrey 2009
         
    04/29/2008
  • News Release: Status Review of Bull Trout Completed! Species still threatened in the United States, additional analysis will be done
  • Q & A: Bull Trout 5-year Review
         
    10/24/2005
  • News Release: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Designates Critical Habitat For Bull Trout
     
  • Q & A: Fact Sheet and Questions and Answers About Bull Trout
     
  • Map: Critical Habitat for Bull Trout (Salvelinus confluentus) - Critical Habitat Units
     
  • More info on the Final Critical Habitat for All Bull Trout Poplulations in Lower 48 States
         
    05/04/2005
  • News Release: Public Comment Sought on Draft Economic Analysis for Proposed Critical Habitiat of Jarbidge Bull Trout
         
    07/01/2004
  • News Release: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Announces Availability of Draft Recovery Plan for Jarbidge River Population of Bull Trout
     
  • Q & A: Draft Recovery Plan
         
    06/22/2004
  • News Release: Critical Habitat Proposed for Jarbidge River Population of Bull Trout
     
  • Q & A: Proposed Critical Habitat
         
    05/2004
  • Draft Recovery Plan for Jarbidge Population of Bull Trout (1.2 MB PDF)
         
         
    Last updated: September 4, 2014