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Foreign Species | Parrots
Service Seeks Comments on a Proposal to Remove Two Australian Parakeets from the Endangered Species List
Great Green Macaw (Ara ambiguous)
The Service listed the great green macaw as endangered under the Endangered Species Act. The great green macaw has small populations in Costa Rica, Colombia, Ecuador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Panama. The total population of the great green macaw is likely between 1,000 and 3,000 individuals, and is in decline. The great green macaw is highly dependant on the almendro tree (tropical almond tree), which is listed on Appendix III of CITES in Costa Rica and Nicaragua.
Military Macaw (Ara militaris)
The Service listed the military macaw as endangered under the Endangered Species Act. The range of the military macaw extends from northern Mexico southward into Ecuador, Peru, Colombia, Venezuela, Bolivia, and the southern tip of Argentina. The Service carefully assessed the best available scientific and commercial information regarding the past, present and future threats faced by this species. These species face significant threats particularly due to habitat loss and encroachment. There are threats due to habitat loss, overutilization, and inadequate regulatory mechanisms. Although it has a large distribution, its population, ranging from 6,000 to 13,000 adults, is highly fragmented into small localized groups ranging from a few pairs to approximately 100 individuals.
White cockatoo (Cacatua alba)
The white cockatoo is also known as the umbrella cockatoo, and is found in Indonesia. There are an estimated 8,000-48,000 left in the wild, and poaching for the pet trade is the most significant threat to the species. On June 24, 2014, the Service announced that the species will be listed the white cockatoo as a threatened species, with a special rule. The special rule allows import, export and interstate commerce of certain white cockatoos without an Endangered Species Act permit, provided the provisions of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora and the Wild Bird Conservation Act are met. This listing will go into effect on July 24, 2014.
Blue-throated macaw received ESA protection
The blue-throated macaw, found only in a small area of Bolivia, was listed as an endangered species under the Endangered Species Act. There are estimated to be fewer than 500 individuals remaining in the wild, and its population continues to decrease despite intense conservation efforts. The primary threat to the species is lack of reproductive success (loss of nestlings) due to nest failure, which primarily is caused by competition for nest sites and predation by larger avian species, in addition to diminished availability of suitable habitat. This listing will go into effect on November 4, 2013.
Yellow-crested cockatoo (Cacatua sulphurea)
There are estimated to be less than 6,000 yellow-crested cockatoos left in Indonesia and Timor-Leste. Despite current conservation measures in place in Indonesia, this species faces severe threats, and the population trend for this species continues to decline. On June 24, 2014, the Service published a rule listing the bird as endangered under the Endangered Species Act. This listing will go into effect on July 24, 2014.
Hyacinth Macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus)
The Fish and Wildlife Service has determined that listing as endangered is warranted for the world's largest flying parrot, the hyacinth macaw (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) under the ESA. At one time, hyacinth macaws were widely distributed throughout Brazil, Bolivia, and Paraguay. Today, the species is limited to three isolated populations, almost exclusively within Brazil. It faces significant threats, particularly due to high deforestation rates, which could destroy remaining native habitat as early as 2030. The hyacinth macaw is found in three populations in the Pará, Gerais, and Pantanal regions. The Par and Gerais populations combined is approximately 1,500 individuals. Hyacinth macaws nest in tree cavities and in some parts of its range, in cliff cavities. Habitat loss, hunting, and competition for food or nesting resources impact the highly specialized nature of the hyacinth macaw.
Philippine cockatoo (Cacatua haematuropygia)
The Philippine cockatoo is also called the red-vented cockatoo, and is known locally as the “katala” or “kalangay,” in the Philippines. There are estimated to be between 450 and 1,245 individuals remaining in the wild. This species faces severe threats, and the population trend for this species continues to decline. Therefore, the Service listed the Philippine cockatoo as endangered under the Endangered Species Act, effective on July 24, 2014.
Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao)
The Service finds that listing the scarlet macaw subspecies, Ara macao cyanoptera, and the northern distinct vertebrate population segment of the scarlet macaw subspecies, Ara macao macao as endangered is warranted and is issuing a proposed rule to list this subspecies and distinct vertebrate population segment. This foreign bird species is found from Mexico to Brazil and currently occurs in 16 Central and South American countries. The Service found that illegal trade and loss of forest habitat pose significant threats to the species in the northern part of its range (from Mexico south to the Colombian Andes), where the subspecies A. m. cyanoptera and the northern DPS of the subspecies A. m. macao occur.
Crimson shining parrot (Prosopeia splendens)
The crimson shining parrot, also known as the Kadavu musk parrot, is endemic to the islands of Kadavu and Ono in Fiji. The island of Kadavu hosts two areas designated by Birdlife International as Important Bird Areas, including Mount Nabukelevu. Mount Nabukelevu's montane forest is critical for five globally threatened bird species, including the crimson shining parrot. On August 9, 2011, the Service found that listing this species was not warranted under the Endangered Species Act.
For all the details, download the Branch of Foreign Species fact sheet.
Get answers to frequently asked questions.
View the complete list of foreign species listed as endangered or threatened under the ESA.
Learn more about the listing process.
Read a public advisory on submitting petitions under the ESA.
Learn more about international activities by visiting the International Affairs Program website.
Read about the latest international stories.
For more information about federal wildlife laws, visit the Office of Law Enforcement website.
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