Endangered Species Program
Conserving the Nature of America

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Devils Hole Pupfish
Produced by: U.S. Fish and Wildife Service
Partners: National Park Service and the State of Nevada


Devils Hole pupfish (Cyprinodon diabolis) was listed as endangered in 1967. This iridescent blue inch-long fish's only natural habitat is in the 93 degree waters of Devils Hole. Devils Hole located within the Ash Meadows National Wildlife Refuge, Nye County, Nevada, which is a detached unit of Death Valley National Park.

The surface area of Devils Hole is approximately 10 X 50 feet the cavern is over 500 feet deep. Pupfish live in the top 80 feet of the pool, are believed forage to spawn exclusively on a 7X13 foot shallow rock shelf just under the water's surface.

The pupfish are believed to have been isolated in Devils Hole for 10,000 to 20,000 years. Endemic species with limited distribution like the Devils Hole pupfish are at greatest risk of extinction since they do not have the flexibility to change locations to adapt to changing environments.

Last updated: October 6, 2011